For the betaxanthin levels (Figure 2E and 2F), it was possible to observe that the interaction between the callus cultivation medium and blue light was not significant, with only the isolated parameters being significant.
A class of water soluble nitrogen containing plant pigments of the order Caryophyllales which consists of the yellow betaxanthins and the violet betacyanins (Gandia-Herrero, Escribano, & Garcia-Carmona, 2005; Yusuf, Shabbir, & Mohammad, 2017).
Effect of screening and subculture on the production of betaxanthins in Beta vulgaris L.
Chemical characteristics included an antioxidant activity of 5.86 [+ or -] 0.34 (Trolox equivalent mmol/100 g), total polyphenol content of 15.2 [+ or -] 0.56 (gallic acid equivalent mg/g), a betaxanthin content of 0.6096 [+ or -] 0.03 (mg/g), and a betacyanin content of 1.5037 [+ or -] 0.29 (mg/g).
The betacyanin content and betaxanthin content were calculated using the following equation:
The decisive step in betaxanthin biosynthesis is a spontaneous reaction.
In contrast, beetroot extracts show a second absorption peak at about 480nm, which is characteristic of yellow betaxanthins (VAILLANT et al., 2005).
The nutraceutical benefits of fruit are believed to their antiulcerogenic activity and antioxidant properties related to ascorbic acid, phenolics, and a mixture of betaxanthin
and betacyanin pigments (Tesoriere et al.
In three recent papers, Gandia-Herrero and his colleagues report that blue light excites betaxanthin pigments to glow yellowish green.
Other parts of the flower contain both betaxanthin and a violet pigment, betanin, which absorbs most of the fluorescence emissions.
Betalains are water-soluble molecules with two or three nitrogen atoms and about 55 structures known, including the red-violet betacyanins and the yellow-orange betaxanthins. Their characteristic is the N-heterocyclic nature with betalamic acid being their common biosynthetic precursor.
In the case of betaxanthins, the antioxidant power has been linked to the presence of one or two phenolic hydroxy groups in their structure.