White 'pitaya' processing to extract the pulp generates a large quantity of residues, such as peels, which can be used for the extraction of betalains (betacyanins and betaxanthins
) (Liaotrakoon et al., 2013; Mello et al., 2015).
A class of water soluble nitrogen containing plant pigments of the order Caryophyllales which consists of the yellow betaxanthins
and the violet betacyanins (Gandia-Herrero, Escribano, & Garcia-Carmona, 2005; Yusuf, Shabbir, & Mohammad, 2017).
Red cactus pear is a source of betanin, as well as other betalainic pigments such as betaxanthins
Betalains are water-soluble molecules with two or three nitrogen atoms and about 55 structures known, including the red-violet betacyanins and the yellow-orange betaxanthins
. Their characteristic is the N-heterocyclic nature with betalamic acid being their common biosynthetic precursor.
Betalains constituted red-violet betacyanins and yellow-orange betaxanthins
. Especially betacyanins are the object of increased interest, because of their use for production of food colorants on a commercial scale.
In contrast, beetroot extracts show a second absorption peak at about 480nm, which is characteristic of yellow betaxanthins
(VAILLANT et al., 2005).
Martinez-Bonfil et al., "Effect of screening and subculture on the production of betaxanthins
in Beta vulgaris L.
tricolor) is rich in natural colorants such as carotenoids, betaxanthins
and anthocyanins (Cai et al., 2005).
Betalins are another class of natural pigments with reddish purple (betacyanins) or yellow (betaxanthins
) nitrogenous vacuolar components that are widely used as food colorants.
The yellowish pigments that give the visible glow are called betaxanthins
. These pigments show up in four-o'clocks (Mirabilisjalapa), portulacas, and certain other flashy flowers related to carnations, cacti, and bougainvilleas.
Betalaines, another class of naturally occurring pigments found in beets, contain betacyanins, which are red, and betaxanthins
, which are yellow.
The Findings: Beets (except white varieties) contain water-soluble pigments called betalains, composed of the redpurple betacyanins and the yellow-orange betaxanthins
. They act as free-radical scavengers preventing oxidative damage; they have tested particularly high in antioxidant activity in several lab studies at the University of Texas at Austin.