In the 6th/7th century, in Bhamaha
, Vamana, we have a revised notion--the notion of samajika, a social being, a participant in a collective performance as it were.
8) But as I hope to demonstrate below, there is good reason to believe that Dandin's vyajastuti was conceived in response to Bhamaha's, or to what we may call the Bhamaha position even if it was first formulated by another author.
Bhamaha addresses vyajastuti in Chapter Three of his work, the second of two chapters dedicated to literary ornaments.
Thus vyajastuti, if my interpretation of Bhamaha is correct, amounts to a scathing letter of resignation, containing a truth about the boss that an employee would not normally dare to express.
Yet this variant reading, which is not particularly well attested, (18) replaces a negligible metrical problem--note that it is not at all uncommon for Bhamaha to have a heavy fifth syllable in his anustubhs (19)--with a syntactical one, namely the presence of the correlative pronoun asau in the absence of its relative counterpart, highly unusual in his style of definition.
21) Moreover, Dandin clearly wishes to move away from the limiting formal analysis found in Bhamaha, wherein vyajastuti necessarily involves a comparison, insofar as the desire to attain parity with someone is part of the definition, and where praise and blame directly result from the success and failure of the subject of the comparison (upameya) to match the achievements of the standard (upamana).
Examining Dandin's additional examples will enable us to better understand his notion of vyajastuti vis-a-vis Bhamaha.
24) But for him Bhamaha is the primary intertext, and it seems that Dandin was quite purposeful in keeping the name of Bhamaha's device while replacing its original effect and relegating veiled criticism to an altogether different domain.