biathlon


Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Wikipedia.

biathlon

(bīăth`lŏn), sport in which cross-country skiers race across hilly terrain, occasionally stopping to shoot, prone or standing as required, with rifles at sets of fixed targets. The biathlon features the 10-km (6.2-mi) sprint, in which contestants shoot at two sets of targets; the 12.5-km (7.8-mi) pursuit, in which contestants shoot four times and start at intervals determined by their finish in the sprint; the 20-km (12.5-mi) race with four shooting stops; a 30 contestant, 15-km (9.3-mi) mass start race with four shooting stops; and a relay race with four 7.5-km (4.7-mi) legs and two shooting stops per leg. The women's races are shorter: a 7.5-km (4.7-mi) sprint, a 10-km (6.2-mi) pursuit, a 15-km (9.3-mi) race, a 12.5-km (7.8-mi) mass start race, and a relay with 6-km (3.7-mi) legs. In the mixed relay, two women and then two men ski a leg of the appropriate length. Competitors are penalized for each missed target by having a standard length added to the course distance that they must complete, or by having a minute added to their time. The control of fine motor skills and breathing required to shoot after the skiing segment makes this a demanding sport. Biathlon competition developed from the military training of ski troops. The sport first became an official part of the Winter Olympics in 1960. Biathlon has also recently acquired meaning as applied to a combined two-sport competition, such as running and swimming.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Biathlon

 

a modern winter two-event competition—ski racing with riflery. While covering a distance of 20 km, the athlete makes five shots each at four firing ranges between the fifth and 18th kilometers: twice at a target 30 cm in diameter (while upright) and twice at a target 15 cm in diameter (while prostrate). The distance to the targets is 150 m. For each miss there is a penalty of two minutes, which are added to the time shown in the ski race. In 1960 the biathlon was incorporated into the program of the winter Olympic games. The winners of the Olympic games have been K. Lestander, a Swede (1960, Squaw Valley), Soviet athlete V. Melan’in (1964, Innsbruck), and M. Solberg (1968,Grenoble). At the Xth Olympics (1968, Grenoble) the 4 × 7.5-km relay was won by the team of Soviet biathlonists (A. Tikhonov, N. Puzanov, V. Mamatov, and V.Gundartsev). Among Soviet athletes, world champions in the biathlon have been V. Melan’in (1959), V. Mamatov (1967), A. Tikhonov (1969), and A. Ushakov (juniors, 1969). In the world championship (1969) the 4 × 7.5-km relay was won by Soviet athletes A. Tikhonov, V. Mamatov, V. Gundartsev, and R. Safin, and the 3 x 7.5-km relay was won by Soviet juniors V. Tolkachev, A. Tagirov, and A. Ushakov.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Marines' victory in the UK championships at Aviemore has left biathlon experts astonished, with one claiming it was the biggest upset in the history of the sport.
Army veteran and teammate Andy Soule (Kerrville, Texas) earned three silver medals, finishing runner-up in the men's biathlon sprint (25:30.2 seconds), men's cross-country sprint (2:55.2) and men's cross-country mid-distance races (24:14.4), while U.S.
The International Biathlon Union is requested to modify the results of the above-mentioned events accordingly and to consider any further action within its own competence.
"Biathlon is a winter Olympic sport that combines Nordic skiing with marksmanship," said US Army Capt.
SKIING: World Cup, Alpine -Eurosport 1 0930; World Cup, Cross-Country -Eurosport 1 1115; World Cup, Biathlon -Eurosport 1 1700; World Cup, Biathlon -Eurosport 1 2045.
A YEAR 7 student from Merchant Taylors' Boys' School, Luke Suarez finished second at the North West Regional Biathlon Championships.
MOSKOVA (CyHAN)- Crimean tank crews will for the first time participate in a tank biathlon contest, the press service of the Russian Southern Military District told reporters Monday.
TILE Hill Wood pupil Amie Miles has qualified for the British Schools' Modern Biathlon Championships which is organised by Pentathlon GB.
Meanwhile, registration is now open for the Alba Biathlon, scheduled to take place on September 30 at Hamala Beach Resort.
4.45pm Biathlon World Cup, Holmenkollen (Eurosport)
Biathlon world champion Yekaterina Iourieva and two Russian teammates have been barred from the world championships after testing positive for banned substances in a systematic doping scheme, the sport's governing body said on Friday.
Billingham Swimming Club AFTER a busy day at the club gala, Billingham Biathletes then converged on the Wentworth Leisure Centre in Hexham to represent their respective schools at the North East Schools Biathlon.