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time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. Physiological changes lead to sexual maturity and usually occur during the first several years of the period. This process of physical changes is known as puberty, and it generally takes place in girls between the ages of 8 and 14, and boys between the ages of 9 and 16. In puberty, the pituitary gland increases its production of gonadotropins, which in turn stimulate the production of predominantly estrogen in girls, and predominantly testosterone in boys. Estrogen and testosterone are responsible for breast development, hair growth on the face and body, and deepening voice. These physical changes signal a range of psychological changes, which manifest themselves throughout adolescence, varying significantly from person to person and from one culture to another. Psychological changes generally include questioning of identity and achievement of an appropriate sex role; movement toward personal independence; and social changes in which, for a time, the most important factor is peer group relations. Adolescence in Western societies tends to be a period of rebellion against adult authority figures, often parents or school officials, in the search for personal identity. Many psychologists regard adolescence as a byproduct of social pressures specific to given societies, not as a unique period of biological turmoil. In fact, the classification of a period of life as "adolescence" is a relatively recent development in many Western societies, one that is not recognized as a distinct phase of life in many other cultures.


See T. Hine, The Rise and Fall of the American Teenager (1999).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


the stage in the LIFE COURSE between childhood and adulthood marked by the beginnings of adult sexuality but coming before full adult status or final detachment from the FAMILY OF ORIGIN OR ORIENTATION.

In simple societies the passage from childhood to adulthood is often marked by rites de passage (see RITUAL), or by the provision of young mens (and less often young women's) AGE SETS. However, it is within modern societies, with their distinctive emphasis on YOUTH CULTURE, fostered by the MASS MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION, that adolescence has achieved a particular importance. In these societies, in contrast to more TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES, adolescents must choose their CAREERS and sexual partners as well as their general LIFESTYLE. Thus adolescence, the time of educational examinations and entry into work, is also a stage in the life cycle which is associated with individual experimentation in sexual and leisure behaviour. It may also be a time for questioning received values, and of rebellion against parental patterns of behaviour (see also GENERATION). The search for independence, and the heightened sense of self-awareness and uncertainty about SELF, can also lead to psychological crisis and psychological disturbance. See also YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, DELINQUENCY.

Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000


Stage in the cycle of erosion following youth and preceding maturity.
The period of life from puberty to maturity.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


novel of young love. [Am. Lit.: Booth Tarkington Seventeen in Magill I, 882]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Forget the children - this year it's the big kids who will be waking up on Christmas morning hoping Santa has filled their stockings with toys.
CHEEKY Children's entertainer Basil Brush is calling on people to follow his lead and behave like big kids for a brand new fund raising campaign.
The glow-in-the-dark feature is soft enough to keep bedtime calm while still encouraging toddlers to become big kids.
PEOPLE may think that telly's Laurence Llewelyn Bowen is a dummy - but to loving wife Jackie, he's just a big kid.
5 ...including a chocolate torte 6 Kirstie McCrum heads over to My Place to try traditional Polish food 7 Gardening hints and tips from resident expert Clive Edwards 8&9 So, can a big kid enjoy Disneyland too?
I don't know who's more excited, after all my wife always says I'm a big kid anyway.
Metro chairman Clr Stanley King said: "They get on so well with their passengers, we've always suspected there's something of the big kid in most My Bus drivers.
It's the one time of the year that I'm really allowed to be a big kid - when Hull Fair comes to town, the biggest one in Britain.
"It's all about letting your imagination go wild, whether it's fancy dress, an 80s film night or even a bring-yourown-toppings pizza party; acting like a big kid for Acorns will help us provide vital specialist care and support for local children and their families."
Baby Nathan Sykes, 19, and Siva, 23, "squared up" in an LA bowling alley after he called Nat a "big kid".
Ian's family last night issued a statement praising the former fish farm worker, who they described as "a big kid at heart".
TO CELEBRATE the launch of the Potty Star Tour, we have teamed up with Huggies' to offer one lucky reader pounds 1000 to spend in the Disney Store to buy 'big kid' dressing up costumes and lots more for their little ones!