Bile Acids

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Bile Acids


steroid monocarboxylic acids, derivatives of cholanic acid that are formed in the liver of man and animals and secreted with bile into the duodenum.

In the liver, bile acids are formed predominantly from cholesterol. Bile acids, which are present in different proportions in the bile of different animals, differ only in the number and spatial arrangement of their hydroxyl groups. Human bile contains principally cholic acid and small quantities of deoxycholic, lithocholic, and chenodeoxycholic acids. Very few bile acids are found in a free state in the bile; a large proportion of them are bound in the form of so-called conju-gate acids, such as glycocholic and taurocholic acid, which are formed as a result of the addition of bile acids to glycine and taurine.

Bile acids promote the digestion of fats in the intestinal tract; they activate the lipase of the pancreatic and intestinal juices and promote the emulsification of fats, stimulating their absorption in undecomposed form; they increase the speed of absorption of poorly soluble calcium salts of fatty acids by forming readily soluble complexes with them; and they greatly intensify intestinal peristalsis. In the intestinal tract a large proportion of the bile acid undergoes reverse absorption, and through the portal-vein system it enters the liver, where it is completely retained. The total bile-acid con-tent in the blood averages 0.8 mg percent; in the bile of the liver, 0.9–1.8 percent; and in cystic bile, 5.7–10.8 percent. When there is a considerable increase in the bile-acid content of the blood, the bile acids begin to be discharged with the urine. A decrease in bile-acid content is almost always accompanied by the precipitation of cholesterol, the principal constituent of gallstones.


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Chief Medical Officer of NGM Bio commented, "We are excited to see the robust biology of NGM282 translate into this significant beneficial effect on key biomarkers of hepatobiliary injury in patients afflicted with PBC, a disease exacerbated by disordered bile acid synthesis.
The researchers then analyzed the samples for their bile acid binding, swelling and gelling properties.
These results are in agreement with the observation of elevated taurine-conjugated bile acids.
baseline in serum bile acid levels as compared to placebo.
In addition, a buildup of bile acids in the blood also can cause pruritus, or itching, which can be severe.
In addition to being reservoirs for excess cholesterol, bile acids are also potent signaling molecules that regulate cholesterol metabolism via the action of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR).
Bioassays of total cholesterol and bile acids in the feces
Regulation of host weight gain and lipid metabolism by bacterial bile acid modification in the gut.
However, the relationship between the physico-chemical properties of CS-fatty acid complexes preparations and their potential interaction with bile acids has seldom been referred, although the information is critical in the production and utilization of such hypolipidemic complexes.
The acid, CDCA (chenodeoxycholic acid) is one of the major bile acids that are produced in the liver, then secreted--via the gall bladder and bile duct--into the upper digestive tract to help the body digest fat.
We determined the effect of physiological concentrations of bile acids on the in vitro growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The following estimations were carried out:--Cytochrome F420 and bile acids [11-13].