In recent years, investigators have been able to show that the expression of HO-1 is enhanced in conditions associated with oxidative stress and that the end products of heme degradation, including biliverdin
, bilirubin, and carbon monoxide, provide protection against renal IR1 through their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities (Correa-Costa et al.
, which is an antioxidant, protoporphyrin is a pro-oxidant associated with poor female condition (Martinez-de la Puente et al.
Conversion of biliverdin
to bilirubin by biliverdin
reductase contributes to endothelial cell protection by heme oxygenase-1 evidence for direct and indirect antioxidant actions of bilirubin.
Oxidation back to biliverdin
, which is responsible for the green colour of bile.
001 Table 14 Biliverdin
(Ab unit) Group Mean [+ or -] SD NO/BHCD 0.
The fact is, Mark Pitman's five-yearold had a ten-and-a-half-length deficit to overturn with the 7-2 second favourite Golden Alpha (who would finish second) on Newbury prep form, and was taking on an Irish hotpot in Biliverdin
Avian eggshell pigmentation is a complex process involving two types of pigments, biliverdin
One factor that causes hemoglobin to break down into biliverdin
is exposure to UV radiation.
The Samkos bush frog's bizarre blood and bone colouring are caused by the pigment biliverdin
, a waste product formed by the liver.
Indol contains biliverdin
, produced in the process of breaking down hemoglobin, which passes through the bile duct, into the gastrointestinal tract and is excreted in the stool.
The color source, the pigment biliverdin
, is expensive for birds to produce, which suggests that blue eggs have a selective advantage.
Over the subsequent several days, it changes to green (as hemoglobin is converted to biliverdin
) and then yellow (as biliverdin
is catabolized to bilirubin).