Bill of Rights


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Related to Bill of Rights: English Bill of Rights, Bill of Rights 1689

Bill of Rights,

in U.S. history: see Constitution of the United StatesConstitution of the United States,
document embodying the fundamental principles upon which the American republic is conducted. Drawn up at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, the Constitution was signed on Sept.
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.

Bill of Rights,

1689, in British history, one of the fundamental instruments of constitutional law. It registered in statutory form the outcome of the long 17th-century struggle between the Stuart kings and the English Parliament. Its principles were accepted by William IIIWilliam III,
1650–1702, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1689–1702); son of William II, prince of Orange, stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and of Mary, oldest daughter of King Charles I of England.
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 and Mary IIMary II,
1662–94, queen of England, wife of William III. The daughter of James II by his first wife, Anne Hyde, she was brought up a Protestant despite her father's adoption of Roman Catholicism. In 1677 she married her cousin William of Orange and went with him to Holland.
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 in the Declaration of Rights as a condition for ascending the throne after the revolution in which James IIJames II,
1633–1701, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685–88); second son of Charles I, brother and successor of Charles II. Early Life
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 was dethroned (1688). The Bill of Rights stated that certain acts of James II were illegal and henceforth prohibited; that Englishmen possessed certain inviolable civil and political rights; that James had forfeited the throne by abdication and that William and Mary were lawful sovereigns; that the succession should pass to the heirs of Mary, then to Princess AnneAnne,
1665–1714, queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1702–7), later queen of Great Britain and Ireland (1707–14), daughter of James II and Anne Hyde; successor to William III.
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 (later queen) and her heirs; and that no Roman Catholic could ever be sovereign of England. By its provisions and implications it gave political supremacy to Parliament and was supplemented (1701) by the Act of SettlementSettlement, Act of,
1701, passed by the English Parliament, to provide that if William III and Princess Anne (later Queen Anne) should die without heirs, the succession to the throne should pass to Sophia, electress of Hanover, granddaughter of James I, and to her heirs, if they
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.

Bill of Rights

 

in Great Britain, a constitutional act passed by Parliament in 1689.

The Bill of Rights was the legal formulation of the so-called Glorious Revolution. It reinforced the victory of the big bourgeoisie and part of the landed aristocracy over absolutism. Without the consent of Parliament the king did not have the right to suspend the power of laws or their execution, to levy taxes for the needs of the crown, and to draft and maintain a standing army in peacetime. Special courts dealing with ecclesiastical and other matters (the Star Chamber and the Court of High Commission) were abolished. The Bill of Rights proclaimed the right to petition, freedom of Parliamentary debate, and free elections to Parliament (in which only the aristocracy and the big bourgeoisie participated). Having sharply limited the crown’s prerogatives and guaranteed the rights of Parliament, the Bill of Rights laid the foundations for the British constitutional monarchy. It formally effected a class compromise between the bourgeoisie and the gentry.

PUBLICATIONS

Konstitutsii burzhuaznykh gosudarstv Evropy. Moscow, 1957. Pages 174–82.

Bill of Rights

 

in the USA, the first ten amendments to the Constitution of 1787, which were passed by Congress under pressure from the broad masses of the people in 1789 and went into effect in 1791.

The Bill of Rights proclaimed the bourgeois democratic freedoms of speech, press, assembly, and religious belief, as well as the separation of church and state; it prohibited the compulsory quartering of troops during peacetime and established the inviolability of the person, property, and personal papers. The Bill of Rights played an important role in developing the democratic traditions of the American people. The progressive forces in the USA are carrying on the struggle for the observance of the Bill of Rights against racial discrimination and the suppression of political freedoms.

REFERENCES

Goncharov, L. N. “K istorii politicheskoi bor’by ν SShA za ’Bill’ o pravakh’ ν 1789–1791 gg.” Nauchnye doklady vysshei shkoly: Istoricheskie nauki, 1958, no. 3.
Myers, D. P. The Process of Constitutional Amendment. [Washington, 1941.]

Bill of Rights

(1791) term popularly applied to first 10 Amendments of U.S. Constitution. [Am. Hist.: Payton, 78]
See: Freedom
References in periodicals archive ?
The Bill of Rights is on display in the Rotunda of the National Archives Building in Washington, D.
Civil rights group Liberty says scrapping the HRA and replacing it with a British Bill of Rights would weaken the rights of all Britons, offering them less protection against "powerful interests.
The shortcomings of the 1960 Canadian Bill of Rights paved the way for the 1982 Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
The practices outlined in the Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights are already followed by many nonprofits.
The fact is that the Bill of Rights was just a political ploy, and by the time it passed it was a big yawn to those who passed it.
As enumerated by Coates, issues requiring a new or radically modified Bill of Rights include economic globalization, the changing nature of war, massive worldwide migration, changes in health and health care, the growth of intellectual property, new technologies, new crimes, new family structures and sexual norms, urbanization, and more.
Such government may even elaborate a rather sophisticated bill of rights, but this by itself will never ensure the full respect to its formal provisions.
Patricia Friend, AFA-CWA International president, said: "A Passenger Bill of Rights will be an empty promise until Congress enacts serious aviation policy reforms such as substantial investments to update and upgrade our air traffic control system; increases in funding for Airport Improvement Projects (AIPs); a carry-on baggage policy that applies to every airline and every flight; ensuring Essential Air Service (EAS) to small communities; improving cabin air quality for crewmembers and passengers; and providing a safe working environment on board aircraft for flight attendants".
Constitutional scholar (4) Richard Labunski's incisive work, James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights (Bill of Rights), provides insight into Madison's central role in the introduction and ratification of the Bill of Rights.
Now I'm a devout believer in postvictory gloating, particularly when it involves upholding our Bill of Rights.
King interrupted with, "It's in the Bill of Rights.