Binding Energy


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binding energy

[′bīn·diŋ ¦en·ər·jē]
(physics)
Abbreviated BE. Also known as total binding energy (TBE).
The net energy required to remove a particle from a system.
The net energy required to decompose a system into its constituent particles.

Energy, Binding

 

(also separation energy), the energy of any bound system of particles (such as an atom) equal to the work required to decompose the system into constituent particles such that they are an infinite distance from each other and cannot interact. It is a negative quantity, since energy is released in the course of the formation of the bound state, and its absolute value characterizes the bond strength (for example, the stability of nuclei).

According to the Einstein relation, the binding energy is equivalent to the mass defect Δm: ΔE = Δmc2, where c is the velocity of light in a vacuum (seeMASS DEFECT). It is determined by the type of interaction between the particles in a given system. Thus, the binding energy of the nucleus is due to the strong interactions of the nucleons in the nucleus (in the more stable nuclei of intermediate atoms, the specific binding energy is ~8 × 106 electron volts [eV]). The energy may be released when light nuclei fuse into heavier ones, as well as upon the fission of heavy nuclei, which is explained by the decrease of the specific binding energy with increasing atomic number.

The binding energy of electrons in an atom or molecule is determined by the electromagnetic interactions, and for each electron it is proportional to the ionization potential; it is equal to 13.6 eV for an electron of the hydrogen atom in the normal state. These same interactions are responsible for the binding energy of atoms in a molecule or crystal. In the case of the gravitational interaction, the binding energy is ordinarily small; however, it may be of considerable magnitude for certain celestial objects, such as black holes.

References in periodicals archive ?
Ingredient Energy level Binding energy Half width of Fe 2p of peak position FeO Fe 2p3/2 709.4 ev 2.71 Fe 2p1/2 723 ev 2.71 Fe 2p3/2 715.4 ev 3.9 Fe 2p1/2 729 ev 3.9 FeOOH Fe 2p3/2 711.9 ev 2.4 Fe 2p1/2 725.5 ev 2.4 Fe 2p3/2 719.9 ev 3.14 Fe 2p1/2 733.5 ev 3.14 Ingredient Energy level Peak area Relative of Fe 2p content FeO Fe 2p3/2 2037.3 32.3% Fe 2p1/2 1024.3 Fe 2p3/2 893.8 Fe 2p1/2 449.2 FeOOH Fe 2p3/2 6215 67.7% Fe 2p1/2 3125 Fe 2p3/2 196.9 Fe 2p1/2 99 Table 3: XPS scanning data of Fe element in the simulate carbonized solution.
Caption: Figure 5: The minimum [m.sub.[chi]]/[m.sub.e] required to eject an electron with binding energy b in eV (a).
In the colorless sample, the electron binding energy peak of Ni is extremely weak, while it is quite strong for the yellow, green, and rose red samples, which all show a good symmetric shape.
PMD molecule [[lambda].sub.1] [[lambda].sub.2] ([DELTA][lambda]), ([DELTA][lambda]), first position second position N[H.sub.3] N[H.sub.3] PMD-I 472.54 (+0.02) 466.44 (-6.08) PMD-II 460.07 (-4.09) 455.47 (-8.69) PMD-III 470.65 (-0.38) 465.76 (-5.27) PMD-IV 468.15 (+3.35) 455.34 (-9.46) PMD-V 535.40 (+0.22) 530.61 (-4.57) PMD-VI 529.00 (+0.76) 523.70 (-4.54) PMD-VII 535.10 (-0.26) 529.58 (-5.78) PMD-VIII 536.43 (+0.20) 531.42 (-4.81) PMD molecule The oscillator strength in the second case PMD-I 0.959 PMD-II 0.992 PMD-III 0.983 PMD-IV 1.020 PMD-V 0.800 PMD-VI 0.864 PMD-VII 0.838 PMD-VIII 0.882 TABLE 3: The binding energy of the N[H.sub.3] and CO molecules in the associate with the PMD molecule (position 2).
We have calculated the ground-state donor binding energy [E.sub.b] as functions of the dot radius R, the dot thickness L ([L.sub.lw] = [L.sub.rw] = L), the middle barrier width [L.sub.mb], the impurity positions [z.sub.0], and the applied electric field F in a ZB [In.sub.x][Ga.sub.1-x]N/GaN SCQDs.
We previously mentioned that those activation energies correlate with microscopic quantities like the adsorption energy for [E.sub.M] and the metal-oxygen binding energy for [E.sub.S].
The DFT analysis of metal complexes for the selective nitrogen removal from the syngas based on binding energy criteria are done.
(22) In the spectrum of DDPA/Al/SU-8, the peaks of phosphorus (P) are clearly seen in the binding energy range of 175-200 eV and the DDPA derivatization on Al surface is thus identified.
Because of the low binding energy of the tiny atomic nuclei, energy can be released by combining two small nuclei with a heavier one.
Our calculations demonstrate that the SWNT-PFO binding energy tends to increase as the length of the side chain increases reaching the optimal value for octyl groups.
In this paper we studied the effects of an intense laser on the binding energy in the ground state of a neutral donor impurity, placed in different positions on the quantum well.