materials utilized in construction for making concretes and mortars, in bonding together individual elements of structural components, in waterproofing, and so on.
Mineral cementing materials. Mineral binding materials are powdered substances that have the capacity when mixed (with water) to form a plastic mass that later hardens into a strong, rocklike solid. Depending on their composition, basic properties, and field of utilization, mineral binding materials are subdivided into hydraulic, air-entrained, and acid-resistant types.
Hydraulic binding materials, after mixing with water and preliminary hardening in the air, continue to preserve and increase their strength in water; they may be used in underground and underwater hydraulic-engineering and other installations. Hydraulic binding materials include various cements: Portland cement and its varieties (quick-setting, plasticized, hydrophobic, plugging, sulfate-resistant, and nonstaining), pozzolanic cements (Portland-pozzolanic cement and limestone-pozzolanic cement), blast-furance cements (metallurgical cement, limestone-slag cement, and sulfate-slag cement), alumina and expanding cements, Roman cement, and hydraulic lime. In order to intensify the hardening processes in certain hydraulic binding materials (limestone-siliceous, limestone-slag, limestone-nephelinic, and others), steam treatment is utilized in autoclaves at a pressure ranging from 0.9 to 1.6 meganewtons per sq m (9 to 16 kilograms-force per sq cm) for a period of nine to ten hours.
Air-entrained binding materials can harden and maintain their strength after mixing only in the air; they are used solely for erecting aboveground structures that are not subject to the action of water. This group of materials includes gypsum cements (construction plaster, supersulfate cement, and highly fired gypsum), magnesian cements (caustic magnesite and dolomite), and air-hardening lime.
Acid-resistant binding materials can maintain their strength after hardening in air while in contact with acids; they are utilized in the construction of acid-resistant coverings. Such binding materials include acid-resistant cements, which are produced on the basis of water glass (sodium silicate) and acid-resistant microfillers and hardening accelerators. Various additives are introduced into binding materials in order to improve certain of their properties.
Organic binding materials. Organic binding materials are substances of organic origin (asphalt, bitumens, pitch, polyvinyl acetate, and furan resins) that have the capacity to make the transition from a plastic state to the hardness or slightly plastic states under the influence of physical or chemical processes.
REFERENCESTekhnologiia viazhushchikh veshchestv. Moscow, 1965.
Volzhenskii, A. V., lu. S. Burov, and V. S. Kolokol’nikov. Mineral’nye viazhushchie veshchestva (tekhnologiia i svoistva). Moscow, 1966.
Vorob’ev, V. A. Stroitel’nye materialy, 4th ed. Moscow, 1967.
IU. M. BUTT