Alfred Binet

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Binet, Alfred

(älfrĕd` bēnā`), 1857–1911, French psychologist. From 1894 he was director of the psychology laboratory at the Sorbonne. He is known for his research and innovation in testing human intelligence. With Théodore Simon he devised (1905–11) a series of tests that, with revisions, came into wide use in schools, industries, and the army. The Stanford, the Herring, and the Kuhlmann are important revisions. Binet and Simon wrote Les Enfants anormaux (1907, tr. Mentally Defective Children, 1914). Most of his writings were published in Année psychologique, a journal that he founded in 1895.

Bibliography

See study by T. H. Wolf (1973).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Binet, Alfred

 

Born July 8, 1857, in Nice; died Oct. 18, 1911, in Paris. French psychologist.

After receiving a juridical education, Binet turned to neurology, histology, and pathopsychology. He was the head of the laboratory of physiological psychology at the Sorbonne (1895). He focused his attention on experimental studies of the higher psychical functions. In 1894 he founded the psychological yearbook L’Année psychologique, which was to become the leading psychological journal in France. In his works, Binet examined the thinking processes of famous calculators and chess masters, problems of intellectual fatigue, the intellectual development of children, the psychophysical problem, and so forth.

Characteristic of Binet’s works (many of which were studies made jointly with other psychologists, such as Féré, Henri, and Simon) is the tendency toward an objective experimental study of the psychical regulation of behavior along with an emphasis on the idea that this regulation is not exhausted by anatomical and physiological factors but has its own mechanisms and regularities of a purely psychological order. Binet was a pioneer in the application of experimental techniques to the study of the higher-order psychical functions, especially the thinking process, for the investigation of which he developed and perfected several new techniques: questionnaires, tests, and the clinical interview. Although he initially adhered to the postulates of associative psychology, Binet later rejected them and treated the thinking process not as a combination of images (ideas) according to the laws of association but as the operation of the general schemata of the solution of problems which are of vital importance to the subject. These schemata are treated as holistic formations that can be correlated with the goal of the thinking act and with the internal orientation of the subject. In characterizing his concept, Binet points out that it “takes activity to be the goal of thinking, and seeks for the very essence of thinking in the system of activity”; and that “psychology has become the science of activity” (Année psychologique, 1908, pp. 145, 148). Binet’s works on the diagnostics of the intellectual development of babies had an enormous effect on psychology. In attempting to solve the problem of selection of mentally retarded children for special schools, he worked out a scale of development of the intellect and at the same time devised a system of simple tests for appropriate measurements. That procedure was based on the idea of a distinction between the chronological age and the age of mental development. Binet is the founder of the testing movement.

WORKS

La Suggestibilité. Paris, 1900.
L’ Étude expérimentale del’intelligence. Paris, 1903.
In Russian translation:
Psikhologiia umozakliucheniia na osnovanii eksperimental’nykh issledovanii posredstvom gipnotizma. Moscow, 1889.
Umstvennoe utomlenie. Moscow, 1899. (Coauthored with V. Henri.)
Dusha i telo. Moscow, 1910.
Sovremennye idei o detiakh. Moscow, 1910.
Nenormal’nye deti. Moscow, 1911. (Coauthored with T. Simon.)

REFERENCES

Eksperimental’naia psikhologiia, vols. 1–2, ch. 1. Edited by P. Fraisse and J. Piaget. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from the French.)
Iaroshevskii, M. G. Istoriia psikhologii, ch. 2. Moscow, 1962.
Betrand, F.-L. Alfred Binet et son oeuvre. Paris, 1930.

M. G. IAROSHEVSKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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They are displayed in the second and third plot of Figure 2.2, the first showing the generalized Binet weight function for [alpha] = 1/2.
In a light metafiction tradition in which a writer draws the attention of the reader to the artificiality of his work Binet makes his principal narrator, Herzog, step out of the novel and turn to the readers, making them aware that the story could be different.
Binet reflects on the "act or process of narration" (Neumann and Nunning 204), that is, comments on the organization of the story, his adding or dropping of scenes, and the language he has elected to use: "But I've reached the point in the story where I have to recount Heydrich's first meeting with his wife" (28); "These two men [General Josef Bily and Major General Hugo Vojta]--yes two more--do not really have a role to play in my story.
Diehl et al reported that 55% of their patients presented at Binet A whereas 33% presented with advanced stage C disease4.Advanced Binet C stage disease due to an autoimmune mechanism was associated with a significantly better survival than those with advanced stage related to a massive bone marrow infiltration (median survivals: 7.4 years vs.
With a few notable exceptions, Binet's philosophy of error resolutely unfolds within the codes of abstract painting.
The result is a book that, in its relentless authorial self-consciousness, seems to court the description "postmodern." Take, for instance, the moment when Binet declares his intention of naming the book "Operation Anthropoid," after the code name used by the British Special Operations Executive for the plan to kill Heydrich.
Given this backdrop of the ongoing controversies within academia around IQ, Danforth's most provocative moment for me was the telling of Samuel Kirk's discovery of a lost (or left behind) 1911 paper written by Alfred Binet (of Stanford-Binet 'fame'):
The event, held under the high patronage of President Zine el Abidine Ben Ali, is part of the Academy's annual meetings with its members, including six Tunisian, to discuss several current issues, particularly skin cancers and leishmaniasis, pointed out NMA life-secretary Jacques Louis Binet.
Reilly is survived by her daughters, Tracy Binet-Perrin and her husband Steven Perrin of Spofford, Barbara's other daughter, Amy Binet McLaughlin and her husband Kevin of Worcester, MA.
The focus of this issue of "Systems Newsletter" is serving highly/exceptionally/profoundly gifted learners, those students who score 3+ standard deviations above the mean on the Stanford Binet 5th edition.
The pair 'lost the plot' as they match-raced each other to the middle of the fleet, allowing the consistent Bald Eagle, sailed by Dunn and his crew of Glen Nattrass and Colin Binet from the Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron to take the championship with a second in the final race.