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in philosophy, a branch of ethicsethics,
in philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a particular society
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 concerned with issues surrounding health care and the biological sciences. These issues include the morality of abortionabortion,
expulsion of the products of conception before the embryo or fetus is viable. Any interruption of human pregnancy prior to the 28th week is known as abortion. The term spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage, is used to signify delivery of a nonviable embryo or fetus due
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, euthanasiaeuthanasia
, either painlessly putting to death or failing to prevent death from natural causes in cases of terminal illness or irreversible coma. The term comes from the Greek expression for "good death.
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, in vitro fertilizationin vitro fertilization
(IVF), technique for conception of a human embryo outside the mother's body. Several ova, or eggs, are removed from the mother's body and placed in special laboratory culture dishes (Petri dishes); sperm from the father are then added, or in many cases a
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, and organ transplants (see transplantation, medicaltransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
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). In the 1970s bioethics emerged as a discipline with its own experts, often professional philosophers, who developed university courses on the subject. Many hospitals now employ experts on bioethics to advise on such issues as how to treat terminally ill patients and to allocate limited resources. Advances in health care, the development of genetic testinggenetic testing,
medical screening for genetic disorders, by examining either a person's DNA directly or a person's biochemistry or chromosomes for indirect evidence. Testing may be done to identify a genetic disorder a person has, whether the disorder is already evident or not,
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 and screening, and the new research in genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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, including gene therapygene therapy,
the use of genes and the techniques of genetic engineering in the treatment of a genetic disorder or chronic disease. There are many techniques of gene therapy, all of them still in experimental stages.
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, have also given rise to questions in bioethics.


See W. T. Reich, ed., Encyclopedia of Bioethics (4 vol., 1978); H. T. Engelhardt, The Foundations of Bioethics (1986); R. Macklin, Mortal Choices: Bioethics in Today's World (1987).


A discipline concerned with the application of ethics to biological problems, especially in the field of medicine.
References in periodicals archive ?
This is an excellent novel to read, just for pure enjoyment, however, I would highly recommend "Stewards of the Flame" to bio-ethics classes.
Still, Bruce Clemenger, the president of the Evangelical Fellowship of Canada, says the two groupings have co-operated on poverty reduction campaigns and have made a joint intervention on bio-ethics to Canada's Supreme Court.
A wide array of questions was discussed such as religious pluralism, missionary work, inter-Christian and inter-religious dialogue, problems of bio-ethics, the battle against AIDS, Christian welfare and social work, new information technologies and many other themes.
Readers will discover a progressive understanding of generally con-temporary constructs of Christian understandings on the social conditions, individualistic, and scientific progression that form public perspective of bio-ethics and the modern pursuit of a greater scientific understanding of the truths that define life.
It may range from corporate and tax law to elder law to bio-ethics, from securities law to antitrust, to litigation and administrative law to criminal defense, with most health lawyers emphasizing subspecialties within their practices.
Integrate bio-ethics and other legitimate factors in all food policy instruments at the national, regional and international levels, including on national bio-safety committees and food standards organizations;
Faculty members have diverse expertise in CAM interventions, clinical trials, social epidemiology, health services research, statistics and methodology, bio-ethics, and health policy analysis Because the development of strong mentoring relationships is essential to the success of the trainees and the program, all trainees will be matched with a faculty advisor, who will function as the trainee's mentor based on their area of research interest
John Harris, professor of bio-ethics at Manchester University, for instance, wants a regulated system of paying live donors.
A new MSc in Global Ethics will be launched by the university in October and a range of short courses, including human rights, global bio-ethics and development ethics, are available.
The US Center for Bio-ethics and Human Dignity said: "It's renegade science pursued at the risk of life.
Richard Eyer, who serves as assistant professor of philosophy at Concordia University Wisconsin, director of counseling, and director of the Concordia Bio-ethics Institute, told the convention, "Now is the time to speak and live the Theology of the Cross that helps people see God in the midst of their suffering.
NEWS that Nuffield Council on Bio-ethics has found a ''compelling moral imperative'' to make GM foods available in developing countries ('Backing for GM foods', May 27) will no doubt please those, like Monsanto and Zeneca, who stand to make a fortune from these products if their worldwide acceptability increases.