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The study of the relation between living organisms and sound.



the area of biology dealing with the voices and sound communication of animals. Bioacoustics is closely related to animal ecology and ethology, to the morphology and physiology of the organs which produce and receive sound signals, and to acoustics. The science of bioacoustics received official recognition in 1956 at the First International Bioacoustics Congress (USA). Work in bioacoustics touches on such general biological questions as formation, speciation, double species, and the direction and factors of evolution.

In the process of evolution, the complexity and reliability of sound communication increases among animals and a transition occurs from the “mechanical” voice (produced by the rubbing of various parts of the body) to the use of stream of air in the respiratory tract (“authentic” voice). Mechanical voice is characteristic of spiders, myriopods, lobsters and crabs, and insects (the vibrating membranes of the cicada, the vibration of beetles’ wings, and so on). The ability to reproduce sounds has been established in more than 1,000 species of fish (from 42 families); they emit sounds by means of their swim bladders, scales, mandibles, and so on. Terrestrial vertebrates use the respiratory system and vocal cords for the production of sounds. Sound communication is particularly developed in birds, and to a somewhat lesser degree in mammals and amphibians. Sound seems to play a small role in the life of reptiles (crocodiles and geckos have voices). The development of the sound-receiving system parallels the development of the voice in the course of evolution. However, there is no absolute correlation between them, since hearing makes contact possible between different groups of animals—often very distant from each other taxonomically—in addition to intraspecific communication.

Bioacoustics also has great practical importance. The behavior of animals is controlled with the help of artificially reproduced sounds (signals) if the outright destruction of harmful animals is not desirable (for example, in order to scare birds away from airports, where their presence threatens to cause aviation accidents). In the field of bionics, the echolocation systems of owls, bats, and dolphins hold great interest owing to their great powers of resolution, their high reliability, and their relatively small dimensions. A type of bioacoustics, biohydroacoustics, is devoted to the development of new methods of fishing and to navigation.


References in periodicals archive ?
We are trying to develop cost-effective koala monitoring using bioacoustics, Dr Elllis said.
Bioacoustics uses automated audio recorders and analysis software, where the technology is "trained" to automatically recognise the calls of individual species.
Bioacoustics provides non-invasive and economic techniques to classify and analyze sound signals, permitting to address the complexity and diversity of the biological communities [6]
The technologies on this year's Hype Cycle that represent these capabilities include bioacoustic sensing, smart dust, quantified self, brain computer interface, affective computing, biochips, 3D scanners, natural-language question and answering (NLQA), content analytics, mobile health monitoring, gesture control, activity streams, biometric authentication methods, location intelligence and speech recognition.
Frommolt, "Detecting bird sounds in a complex acoustic environment and application to bioacoustic monitoring," Pattern Recognition Letters, vol.
Taxonomic reassessment of Middle Eastern lake frogs: Bioacoustic variation among populations consideres as Rana ridibunda, R.
A combination of bioacoustic methods and other techniques could be a cost effective way to highlight behavioral traits, confirm breeding status, and improve the accuracy of Great Gray Owl and other nocturnal surveys.
His recent achievements include: providing the first physical explanation for the role of a prominent flap seen in mammalian ears in 2004; discovery of a novel helical scan in the ear directivity of a bat in 2006; discovery of frequency-selective beam-forming by virtue of resonances in noseleaf furrows of a bat, an entirely new bioacoustic paradigm in 2006; establishing the first immediate and quantitative characterization of the spatial information created by a mammal's outer ear in 2007; and now uncovering the acoustic effect of non-rigid ear deformations in bats.
A Quest Model BA-201-25 Bioacoustic Simulator and Octave Band Monitor [Quest Technologies; Oconomowoc, Wisconsin] was used to continuously measure the background noise levels in the audiometric test room during audiometric examinations.
These following observations are based on the mathematical matrix of BioAcoustic Biology developed over the last 20 years by the Sound Health Research Center located in Albany, Ohio, USA.
A technology called "Skinput," developed by Carnegie Mellon PhD candidate Chris Harrison and team, uses bioacoustic sensors that can pick up the signature sounds of a finger tapping on specific locations on the skin.