Bioacoustics

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bioacoustics

[¦bī·ō·ə′kü·stiks]
(biology)
The study of the relation between living organisms and sound.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Bioacoustics

 

the area of biology dealing with the voices and sound communication of animals. Bioacoustics is closely related to animal ecology and ethology, to the morphology and physiology of the organs which produce and receive sound signals, and to acoustics. The science of bioacoustics received official recognition in 1956 at the First International Bioacoustics Congress (USA). Work in bioacoustics touches on such general biological questions as formation, speciation, double species, and the direction and factors of evolution.

In the process of evolution, the complexity and reliability of sound communication increases among animals and a transition occurs from the “mechanical” voice (produced by the rubbing of various parts of the body) to the use of stream of air in the respiratory tract (“authentic” voice). Mechanical voice is characteristic of spiders, myriopods, lobsters and crabs, and insects (the vibrating membranes of the cicada, the vibration of beetles’ wings, and so on). The ability to reproduce sounds has been established in more than 1,000 species of fish (from 42 families); they emit sounds by means of their swim bladders, scales, mandibles, and so on. Terrestrial vertebrates use the respiratory system and vocal cords for the production of sounds. Sound communication is particularly developed in birds, and to a somewhat lesser degree in mammals and amphibians. Sound seems to play a small role in the life of reptiles (crocodiles and geckos have voices). The development of the sound-receiving system parallels the development of the voice in the course of evolution. However, there is no absolute correlation between them, since hearing makes contact possible between different groups of animals—often very distant from each other taxonomically—in addition to intraspecific communication.

Bioacoustics also has great practical importance. The behavior of animals is controlled with the help of artificially reproduced sounds (signals) if the outright destruction of harmful animals is not desirable (for example, in order to scare birds away from airports, where their presence threatens to cause aviation accidents). In the field of bionics, the echolocation systems of owls, bats, and dolphins hold great interest owing to their great powers of resolution, their high reliability, and their relatively small dimensions. A type of bioacoustics, biohydroacoustics, is devoted to the development of new methods of fishing and to navigation.

V. D. IL’ICHEV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
A combination of bioacoustic methods and other techniques could be a cost effective way to highlight behavioral traits, confirm breeding status, and improve the accuracy of Great Gray Owl and other nocturnal surveys.
To reduce error from another source, we minimized the introduction of extraneous bioacoustic and electrical noise in recorded data by choosing -64 dB as the minimum signal level for computer analysis.
A set of behavioural experiments, bioacoustic and neurophysiological measurements (some with a relatively low sample size, but not repeatable under the same circumstances) indicates the following system: the male song (92 dB [SPL.sub.peak] at a distance of 1 m) is about 10 dB louder than the female song.
New data on acoustic communication and ecology of the genera Eremippus and Dociostaurus (Orthoptera, Acrididae) and notes on the use of bioacoustic data in supraspecific taxonomy of the subfamily Gomphocerinae.
The new species are characterised on the basis of genetic, morphological, bioacoustic, and ecological features.