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see biological diversitybiological diversity
or biodiversity,
the number of species in a given habitat. Scientists have variously estimated that there are from 3 to 30 million extant species, of which 2.
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The variety of all living things; a contraction of biological diversity. Biodiversity can be measured on many biological levels ranging from genetic diversity within a species to the variety of ecosystems on Earth, but the term most commonly refers to the number of different species in a defined area.

Numbers of extant species for selected taxonomic groups
Number of Estimated number Percent
Kingdom Phylum species described of species described
Protista 100,000 250,000 40.0
Fungi Eumycota 80,000 1,500,000 5.3
Plantae Bryophyta 14,000 30,000 46.7
Tracheophyta 250,000 500,000 50.0
Animalia Nematoda 20,000 1,000,000 2.0
Arthropoda 1,250,000 20,000,000 5.0
Mollusca 100,000 200,000 50.0
Chordata 40,000 50,000 80.0
*With permission, modified from G. K. Meffe and C. R. Carroll, Principles of Conservation Biology, 1997.

Recent estimates of the total number of species range from 7 to 20 million, of which only about 1.75 million species have been scientifically described. The best-studied groups include plants and vertebrates (phylum Chordata), whereas poorly described groups include fungi, nematodes, and arthropods (see table). Species that live in the ocean and in soils remain poorly known. For most groups of species, there is a gradient of increasing diversity from the Poles to the Equator, and the vast majority of species are concentrated in the tropical and subtropical regions.

Human activities, such as direct harvesting of species, introduction of alien species, habitat destruction, and various forms of habitat degradation (including environmental pollution), have caused dramatic losses of biodiversity; current extinction rates are estimated to be 100–1000 times higher than prehuman extinction rates.

Some measure of biodiversity is responsible for providing essential functions and services that directly improve human life. For example, many medicines, clothing fibers, and industrial products and the vast majority of foods are derived from naturally occurring species. In addition, species are the key working parts of natural ecosystems. They are responsible for maintenance of the gaseous composition of the atmosphere, regulation of the global climate, generation and maintenance of soils, recycling of nutrients and waste products, and biological control of pest species. Ecosystems surely would not function if all species were lost, although it is unclear just how many species are necessary for an ecosystem to function properly.

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


The tendency in ecosystems, when undisturbed, to have a great variety of species forming a complex web of interactions. Human population pressure and resource consumption tend to reduce biodiversity dangerously; diverse communities are less subject to catastrophic disruption.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


The range of living organisms (such as plant and animal species) in an environment during a specific time period.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


the existence of a wide variety of plant and animal species in their natural environments, which is the aim of conservationists concerned about the indiscriminate destruction of rainforests and other habitats
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(2014) in which the different designs studied in biodiverse AFSs varied the carbon content according to the established arrangement and the age of the system.
It is designed both to offer a survey of biodiversity in marine environments on the subcontinent, and to assist researchers and policy-makers in meeting three of the biodiversity targets in the Nagoya agreement on biodiversity in 2010: avoiding overfishing, minimizing ocean acidification, and conservation of 10% of the most biodiverse ecosystems that actively process waste, support fisheries, and so on.
Not only are they costly (as in the case of kudzu), but planting them in gardens actually takes away food from bugs and leads to a less biodiverse environment.
Phylomer peptides are derived from biodiverse natural sequences, which have been selected by evolution to form stable structures that can bind tightly, and specifically to disease associated target proteins, both inside and outside cells.
Did you know, for example: that with a uniquely biodiverse landscape--with nature reserves, parks and gardens--the Greater London National Park (still only an idea!!) is recognised as one of the world's most important urban habitats.
We provide novel morphological and molecular data on the taxonomic diversity, life cycles, and geographic distributions of Proterometra spp., a putatively highly-endemic and biodiverse group of flukes little studied in Alabama.
Yasuni is one of the most biodiverse places in the world and home to indigenous peoples.
Researchers at Wake Forest University are developing small, insect-like drones to explore the Peruvian cloud forest, an area about the size of the continental United States and believed to be one of the most biodiverse places on Earth.
Pupils are the driving force and take responsibility for all aspects of the school to ensure it is healthy, biodiverse and efficient in waste management.
On 7 November, the Portuguese project Sown biodiverse pastures' took home the prize for the World You Like Challenge organised by the European Commission.
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Far from the planet "dying" as global warming hoax pushers claim, it was one of the most lush and biodiverse times in our planet's history.

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