Biological Fuel

Biological Fuel

 

(in Russian, biotoplivo), various organic materials which give off heat during the process of decomposition and are used to warm hothouses, hotbeds, and heated soil. Manure (horse, cow, sheep, and hog), domestic garbage, bark (taken from a tree), sawdust, flax tow, waste from the textile industry, dry wood sheets, and undecomposed peat are used as biological fuels. When laid with average density, the volumetric mass (in tons per cu m) is 0.35–0.45 for horse and sheep manure; 0.40–0.50 for cow manure, 0.70–0.75 for domestic garbage, and 0.40–0.45 for bark. In the late autumn biological fuel is put in stacks for storage (separated by types), strongly tamped and heated by culmiferous manure. During storage the temperature in the biological fuel is maintained at from 0° C to 10° C. For two or three weeks before use the biological fuel is broken up (loosened). In order to accelerate initial burning, damp and dense biological fuel is mixed with dry and loose fuel. If the fuel does not begin burning within one week, artificial ignition is resorted to (laying in hotbeds of burning biological fuel or unslaked lime, putting hot stones in, and so on). For one cu m of area in hothouses and heated soil, 0.25–0.4 cu m of biological fuel is required; whereas for one frame in the hotbeds, 0.6–1.5 cu m is required.

V. A. BRYZGALOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Objective: Enzymatic biological fuel cells (EBFCs) utilise enzymes as biological catalysts to produce electrical energy from chemical energy, usually being fuelled by simple molecules such as glucose or ethanol, in the presence of O2.
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Scientists have long known of the existence of what they call exoelectrogenic microbes, organisms that evolved in airless environments and developed the ability to react with oxide minerals rather than breathe oxygen as we do to convert organic nutrients into biological fuel.
It will be used to develop sustainable power and improve understanding of biological fuel cells.
The MFC is a biological fuel cell that uses living microbes as a catalyst for an electrochemical reaction that converts waste to power and water.
Both are biological fuel cells, but enzyme-based fuel cells use purified enzymes from reduction and oxidation reactions, rather than complete microbial cells, as the catalysts.
Further, because biological fuel cells operate at room temperature there is no need to waste energy on heating or use expensive catalysts like platinum.
The areas of research are solar pv, hydrogen and biological fuel cells.
Microbial Fuel Cell is a biological fuel cell that converts the chemical energy present in organic compounds to electrical energy through electrochemical reaction of micro organisms at the anode chamber under anaerobic conditions.
Contract notice: Biological fuel oil - rme in 2016.