Biological Fuel

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Biological Fuel

 

(in Russian, biotoplivo), various organic materials which give off heat during the process of decomposition and are used to warm hothouses, hotbeds, and heated soil. Manure (horse, cow, sheep, and hog), domestic garbage, bark (taken from a tree), sawdust, flax tow, waste from the textile industry, dry wood sheets, and undecomposed peat are used as biological fuels. When laid with average density, the volumetric mass (in tons per cu m) is 0.35–0.45 for horse and sheep manure; 0.40–0.50 for cow manure, 0.70–0.75 for domestic garbage, and 0.40–0.45 for bark. In the late autumn biological fuel is put in stacks for storage (separated by types), strongly tamped and heated by culmiferous manure. During storage the temperature in the biological fuel is maintained at from 0° C to 10° C. For two or three weeks before use the biological fuel is broken up (loosened). In order to accelerate initial burning, damp and dense biological fuel is mixed with dry and loose fuel. If the fuel does not begin burning within one week, artificial ignition is resorted to (laying in hotbeds of burning biological fuel or unslaked lime, putting hot stones in, and so on). For one cu m of area in hothouses and heated soil, 0.25–0.4 cu m of biological fuel is required; whereas for one frame in the hotbeds, 0.6–1.5 cu m is required.

V. A. BRYZGALOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Shrestha said with more work and optimized biological fuel cell, it would be possible to power up Walt Disney World in Orlando with the annual tomato waste generated in the state of Florida.
If they succeed, these "biological fuel cells" could usher in a new wave of medical devices smaller and more versatile than today's batteries allow.
A microbial fuel cell or biological fuel cell is a bio-electrochemical system generating a current by mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature.
As these microbes ingest organic matter and convert it into biological fuel, their excess electrons flow into the carbon filaments and across to the positive electrode, which is made of silver oxide, a material that attracts electrons, the researchers said.
It will be used to develop sustainable power and improve understanding of biological fuel cells.
The MFC is a biological fuel cell that uses living microbes as a catalyst for an electrochemical reaction that converts waste to power and water.
Both are biological fuel cells, but enzyme-based fuel cells use purified enzymes from reduction and oxidation reactions, rather than complete microbial cells, as the catalysts.
"Further, because biological fuel cells operate at room temperature there is no need to waste energy on heating or use expensive catalysts like platinum.
The areas of research are solar pv, hydrogen and biological fuel cells.
In the last decade, research on biological fuel cells has gained momentum--and has included a menagerie of living power sources, including grapes, lobsters, clams and snails.