Biological Scientific Research Institutes

Biological Scientific Research Institutes

 

establishments that conduct research in the field of biology. Contemporary biological institutes elaborate methods for comprehensive investigations of animals, plants, and microorganisms under the various conditions of their existence in nature, as well as in experiments. The biological problems resolved by the collectives of the biological institutes are usually closely connected to the requirements of the practical life of society.

One of the first biological institutes was the Botanical Institute of Vienna University (1844). In 1846, with funds bequeathed by the English mineralogist J. Smithson, the Smithsonian Institution, which included divisions of anthropology and biology among others, was founded in Washington, D. C. The institute has published a collection of its works, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, once or twice each year since 1862. In the late 1880’s and early 1890’s a number of scientific research institutes in the fields of microbiology and epidemiology appeared. At that time the following institutes were founded: L. Pasteur (Paris, 1888), R. Koch (Berlin, 1891), the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine (London, 1891), the Hygienic Institute in Hamburg (1892), the Kitasato Institute for infectious diseases in Tokyo (1892), and the Anthropologic Institute in Italy (1893). In the 1890’s, Pasteur institutes were founded in Lille, Brussels, Tunis, Tangiers, and Kindia (Guinea). In Bombay the Khavkin Institute was founded in 1896 by the Russian microbiologist V. A. Khavkin as a center for research on bubonic plague in India. The Institute of Serum Therapy in Italy (Milan) and the Institute of Mycology in England (Cambridge) also date from 1896. In 1901 in New York the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, which now works on problems of theoretical biology, medicine, biochemistry, and allied disciplines, was founded. In this institute there are no divisions or laboratories; there are several basic scientific trends, along which small groups of researchers, headed by important scientists, conduct their work. The Carnegie Institute, founded in Washington in 1902, includes, among others, a department of biology; it has published scientific monographs, Publications Monographs, since 1902 and an annual, also since 1902. In 1906 in France the Oceanographic Institute, which also studies the biology of seas and oceans, was founded. In Italy in 1918 the Institute of Biochemistry was opened. In Great Britain in 1919 the National Institute of Oceanology, the National Institute of Agricultural Botany, and others were started.

After World War I, important national centers of scientific research and academies of science began to be created in major national centers, and academies of science were uniting the numerous scientific research institutes in various countries. In many countries scientific research institutes are part of universities.

In Russia the appearance of the first scientific research institutes relating to biology was connected with the requirements of practical medicine. In 1887 the Institute of Bacteriology of the Kharkov Medical Society was founded. In 1890 in St. Petersburg, with the active participation of I. P. Pavlov, the Institute of Experimental Medicine, which regularly published Arkhiv biologicheskikh nauk (Archive of the Biological Sciences) from 1892–1941, was founded. In 1944 that institute was the principal basis for the organization of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, and it now exists in Leningrad as an independent institute of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR.

In the first years of Soviet power, several institutes were established, among them the Institute of Experimental Biology (1917), which was begun in 1916 on the initiative of N. K. Kol’tsov (later the Institute of Cytology, Histology, and Embryology, which in 1949 was incorporated into the A. N. Severtsov Institute of Animal Morphology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR) and the Government Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine (1918), whose department of helminthology served as the basis of the K. I. Skriabin Ail-Union Institute of Helminthology, organized in 1931. A number of institutes were created that are now part of the system of the Ministry of Public Health of the USSR or of the Soviet republics: the Government Control Institute for Medical Biological Preparations (Moscow, 1919, begun on the initiative of L. A. Tarasevich [1868–1927] and now bearing his name); the I. I. Mechnikov Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums (founded in 1919 as the I. I. Mechnikov Moscow Oblast Scientific Research Institute of Infectious Diseases); institutes of vaccines and serums in Sverdlovsk, Stavropol’, Tashkent (all 1920), and Tbilisi (1923); the E. I. Martsinovskii Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine (founded in 1920 as the Institute of Protozoan Diseases and Chemotherapy). The 1920’s witnessed the founding of institutes of botany, zoology, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, genetics, paleontology, and others. The work of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was intensified. In 1929 the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) was founded, and later (1944) the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR; these are the principal scientific and organizational branch centers. All this activity, together with the organization of academies of science in the Soviet republics, fostered the appearance of many biological institutes. New institutes emerged, as a rule, on the basis of small scientific research establishments, such as those of laboratories, museums, and factories. Thus, at the beginning of the 1920’s the K. A. Timiriazev Institute of Biology was established at the Communist Academy. Its first director was S. G. Navashin. In Kiev in 1921 the Institute of Microbiology was organized on the basis of a laboratory; it was converted to a biological institute in 1924 and in 1930 became part of the Institute of Zoology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The D. N. Anuchin Institute of Anthropology of Moscow State University emerged in 1922 on the basis of the museum and the department of anthropology at Moscow State University. The Scientific Research Institute of Biology at Perm University was opened at the same time. The Government Institute of Experimental Agronomy was created in 1923 in Leningrad, and in 1924, on the basis of the department of applied botany of this institute, the All-Union Institute of Applied Botany and New Crops emerged, renamed in 1930 the All-Union Institute of Horticulture (VIR). The first director of these institutes was N. I. Vavilov. The Institute of Medico-biology of the Central Scientific Board was founded in Moscow in 1924. In 1925, on the basis of the physiology laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (the first physiological scientific research establishment in Russia, organized by F. V. Ovsiannikov in 1864), the Institute of Physiology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (since 1950 the I. P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR) was founded in Leningrad. The following were founded in the same year: in Moscow, on the basis of a laboratory of thyroidectomized animals (1919), the Government Institute of Endocrinology (since 1965 the Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and Chemistry of Hormones of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR); and in Kharkov, the Ukrainian Biochemical Institute, organized by A. V. Palladin (in 1931 the Institute was moved to Kiev). In 1926 the Central Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion (now part of the system of the Ministry of Public Health of the USSR) was founded in Moscow. In 1927 the V. V. Dokuchaev Institute of Soil of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (from 1961 in the VASKhNIL system) was organized. The Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (now the D. K. Zabolotnyi Institute of Microbiology and Virology) was founded in 1928 in Kiev by D. K. Zabolotnyi. The Institute of Experimental Morphogenesis of the People’s Commissariat of Education, which later became part of Moscow State University, was one of several institutes formed in 1931.

The following biological institutes function within the system of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: the Institute of Paleontology (Moscow, 1930, on the basis of the paleontology department of the Geological Museum of Moscow State University); the V. L. Komarov Institute of Botany (Leningrad, 1931, as a result of the merging of the Central Botanical Garden [1714] and the Botanical Museum of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR [1823]); the Institute of Zoology (Leningrad, 1931, on the basis of the Zoological Museum, 1832, which was in turn founded on the basis of the first Russian Medico-biological Museum—Kunstkamera, 1714); the Institute of Microbiology (Moscow, 1934, on the basis of the microbiological laboratory, 1929); the K. A. Timiriazev Institute of Plant Physiology (Moscow, 1934, when the laboratory of plant biochemistry and physiology, 1890, was moved from Leningrad to Moscow); the A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry (Moscow, 1935, on the basis of the I. P. Pavlov Laboratory of Biochemistry and Physiology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR); the Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology (Moscow, 1960, on the basis of the Institute of Higher Nervous Activity of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1950); the I. P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology (see above); the Institute of Biological Physics (1952, now in Pushchino, Moscow Oblast); the Institute of Cytology (Leningrad, 1957); the Institute of the Biology of Inland Waters (Yaroslavl Oblast, 1962, on the basis of the Institute of the Biology of Water Reservoirs of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1956, created in turn on the basis of the Borok Biology Station); the I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry (Leningrad, 1964, on the basis of the Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology, 1956); the Institute of the Chemistry of Natural Compounds (Moscow, 1959); the Institute of Molecular Biology (Moscow, 1965, on the basis of the Institute of Radiation and Physico-chemical Biology, 1957); the Institute of Photosynthesis (Pushchino, Moscow Oblast, 1966); the Institute of General Genetics (Moscow, 1966; from 1933 to 1966, the Institute of Genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR); the Institute of Proteins (Pushchino, Moscow Oblast, 1967); the Institute of the Biology of Development (Moscow, 1967), organized simultaneously with the A. N. Severtsov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology (Moscow) on the basis of the A. N. Severtsov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1949), and still earlier, of the A. N. Severtsov Institute of Animal Morphology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1935); and the Institute of Complex Brain Studies (Pushchino, Moscow Oblast; in 1969–70 in its organizational stage). Biological institutes are also found at affiliate branches of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: the Murmansk Institute of Marine Biology of the Kolsk Branch (Dal’nie Zelentsy, Murmansk Oblast, 1958, on the basis of the Murmansk Biological Station of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, created on the basis of the Solovetskaia Biostation in the White Sea, 1881); the Institute of Biology of the Komi Branch (Syktyvkar, 1962); and the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology of the Ural Branch (Sverdlovsk, 1944; since 1970, the Institute of General Biogeocenology and Ecology).

Important biological institutes are included in the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, organized in 1958: among these are the Institute of Biology (Novosibirsk, 1955; as the Institute of Medico-biology, a part of the Western Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1944); the Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (Irkutsk, 1965, on the basis of the department of biology [1954] that grew out of the biological section of the Eastern Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1949); the V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forestry and Timber (Krasnoiarsk, 1958, on the basis of the Institute of Forestry of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1944); the Institute of Limnology (Listvennichnoe, Irkutsk Oblast, 1961, on the basis of the Baikal Limnology Station of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR); the Institute of Physiology (Novosibirsk, 1957); the Institute of Cytology and Genetics (Novosibirsk, 1957); the Buriat Institute of Natural Sciences of the Buriat Branch (Ulan-Ude); the Institute of Soil Biology and the V. L. Komarov Institute of Biologically Active Substances of the Far Eastern Branch (Vladivostok); and the Institute of Biology of the Yakutsk Branch (Yakutsk).

Many institutes of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR work on biological problems that are at the basis of theoretical and practical medicine. Included among these are the D. I. Ivanovskii Institute of Virology (Moscow, 1946); the Institute of Nutrition (Moscow, 1930); the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for the Discovery of New Antibiotics (Moscow, 1953); the N. F. Gamaleia Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology (Moscow, 1931); the Institute of Gerontology (Kiev, 1959); the Institute of Experimental and Clinical Oncology (Moscow, 1952, on the basis of the Laboratory of Cancer Biotherapy of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR); the Institute of Biological and Medical Chemistry (Moscow, 1944); the Institute of Brain Studies (Moscow, 1927); the Institute of Human Morphology (Moscow, 1961); the Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology (Moscow, 1954, on the basis of the Institute of Physiology and the Institute of Experimental Pathology); the Institute of Experimental Biology (Moscow, 1947; since 1969, the Institute of Medical Genetics); the Institute of Experimental Medicine (Leningrad, 1890, see above); the Institute of Experimental Pathology and Therapy (Sukhumi, 1927); the Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and Hormone Chemistry (1965, Moscow, see above); and many others.

Besides those mentioned above, the following institutes work within the system of the USSR Ministry of Public Health: the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Vitaminology (Moscow, 1954, on the basis of the Government Vitamin Control Station); the Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Viral Preparations (1957); the Central Scientific Research Institute of Disinfection (Moscow, 1933); the Central Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology (Moscow, 1963); and others. There are institutes related to biology and operating within the system of the USSR Ministry of Medical Industry; among these are the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal Plants (Moscow Oblast, 1931); the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Vitamins (Moscow, 1947); and the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Antibiotics (Moscow, 1947).

The biological institutes of the Academies of Science of the Soviet republics have made a significant contribution to the development of the biological sciences. These institutes have concentrated their research mainly on the study of the natural resources of the respective republics, while simultaneously resolving general-scientific theoretical problems in the fields of biology and related sciences. The following biological institutes are operating (1969) within the Academies of Science of the Soviet republics: within the Academy of Science of the Azerbaijan SSR, the V. L. Komarov Institute of Botany (1934) and the Institutes of Zoology (1935) and of Soil Science and Agrochemistry (1945); within the Academy of Science of the Armenian SSR, the Institute of Biochemistry (1961), the Institute of Botany (1940), the Institute of Zoology (1943, when the Academy was founded), the Institute of Microbiology (1961), the L. A. Orbeli Institute of Physiology (1943), the Institute of Agro-chemical Problems and Hydroponics (1966, on the basis of the Laboratory of Agrochemistry, 1947), and the Institute of Experimental Biology (1966); within the Academy of Science of the Byelorussian SSR, the Institute of Experimental Botany (1931, as the Institute of Biology [Botany]), the Institute of Physiology (1953), and the Institute of Genetics and Cytology (1965); within the Academy of Science of the Georgian SSR, the I. G. Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry (1932), the Institute of Paleobiology (1957), the Institute of Botany (1934), the Institute of Zoology (1941), the Institute of Physiology (1941), and the A. N. Natishvili Institute of Experimental Morphology (1946); within the Academy of Science of the Kazakh SSR, the Institute of Soil Science (1945), the Institute of Botany (1946), the Institute of Zoology (1944), the Institute of Microbiology and Virology (1956), the Institute of Physiology (1945), and the Institute of Experimental Biology (1962); within the Academy of Science of the Kirghiz SSR, the Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology (1964) and the Institute of Biology (1964); within the Academy of Science of the Latvian SSR, the Institute of Organic Synthesis (1957), the Institute of Wood Chemistry (1963, on the basis of the Institute of Forestry Problems, created upon formation of the Academy of Science of the Latvian SSR, 1946), the Institute of Biology (1951) and the A. M. Kirkhenshtein Institute of Microbiology (1946); within the Academy of Science of the Lithuanian SSR, the Institute of Botany (1959) and the Institute of Zoology and Parasitology (1959, on the basis of the Institute of Biology, 1941); within the Academy of Science of the Moldavian SSR, the Institute of Zoology (1961) and the Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (1961); within the Academy of Science of the Tadzhik SSR, the Institutes of Botany (1941), of Zoology and Parasitology (1941, on the initiative of E. N. Pavlovskii), and of Plant Physiology and Biophysics (1964); within the Academy of Science of the Turkmen SSR, the Institutes of Deserts (1962), Botany (1930), and Zoology (1957, on the basis of the Department of Zoology of the Murgab Hydrobiological Station, formerly the Institute of Biology of the Academy of Science of the Turkmen SSR); within the Academy of Science of the Uzbek SSR, the Institutes of Experimental Plant Biology (1964, on the basis of the Institute of Plant Genetics and Physiology of the Academy of Science of the Uzbek SSR, 1956, and still earlier of the Institute of Agriculture of the Academy of Science of the Uzbek SSR, 1948), Botany (1950), and Zoology and Parasitology (1950, on the basis of the Institute of Botany and Zoology, 1943); within the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR, the Institutes of Botany (1931), Biochemistry (1925, see above), Zoology (1930, see above), and Hydrobiology (1939, on the basis of the Dnieper Biological Station, 1934), and the A. O. Kovalevskii Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas (1963, on the basis of the A. O. Kovalevskii Sevastopol’ Biological Station—the first biostation in Russia [1871–72]), the A. A. Bogomolets Institute of

Physiology (1953, on the basis of the A. A. Bogomolets Institute of Experimental Biology and Pathology, 1934), and the D. K. Zabolotnyi Institute of Microbiology and Virology (1928); and within the Academy of Science of the Estonian SSR, the Institute of Experimental Biology (1957) and the Institute of Zoology and Botany (1952, on the basis of the Institute of Biology, 1946).

The academic committees of a number of leading institutes have the right to accept for defense masters’ and doctoral dissertations. Among the tasks of the institutes is preparation of scientific cadres through graduate and doctoral work without interrupting scientific workers in their principal tasks.

B. P. SAMSONOV

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