stove

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stove,

device used for heatingheating,
means of making a building comfortably warm relative to a colder outside temperature. Old, primitive methods of heating a building or a room within it include the open fire, the fireplace, and the stove.
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 or for cooking food. The stove was long regarded as a cooking device supplementary to the fireplace, near which it stood; its stovepipe led into the fireplace chimney. It was not until about the middle of the 19th cent., when the coal-burning range with removable lids came into general use, that the fireplace was finally supplanted as the chief cooking agency.

Early Stoves

As early as Roman times stoves made of clay, tile, or earthenware were in use in central and N Europe. Early Swiss stoves of clay or brick, without chimneys, were built against the outer house wall, with an opening to the outside through which they were fueled and through which the smoke could escape. Scarcity of fuel made an economical heat-retaining device necessary, and these primitive stoves, built of clay, brick, tile, or plastered masonry, became common in the Scandinavian countries, Holland, Germany, and N France. Some exquisitely colored and glazed tile stoves, dating from the 16th and 17th cent., show traces of Moorish influence. In Russia large brick stoves formed a partition between two rooms. Because of the very long flue, which wound back and forth inside the structure, these could be heated for some hours with a small amount of light fuel.

Iron Stoves

A cast-iron stove made in China before A.D. 200 has been found, but it was not until late in the 15th cent. that cast-iron stoves were first made in Europe. These consisted of plates that were grooved to fit together in the shape of a box. Probably the earliest of this type were earthenware stoves enclosed in iron castings decorated with biblical scenes and armorial and arabesque designs. They often bore inscriptions in Norse, German, Dutch, French, or sometimes Latin, and some were dated. Many were highly artistic specimens of handicraft. A typical early iron stove is the wall-jamb, or five-plate, stove, which was fueled from an adjoining room.

Dutch, Swedish, and German settlers of the American colonies, especially those of Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, brought with them five-plate stoves or molds for casting them. Iron founding began c.1724 in America, and old forges or foundries have left records of five-plate stoves sold in 1728 as Dutch stoves or, less commonly, carved stoves. These continued to be made until Revolutionary times, when they were superseded by the English, or 10-plate, stove, which stood free of the wall and had a draft or fuel door. These 10-plate devices could cook and warm at the same time and replaced, in part, the large masonry baking oven, usually built outside the house.

The Franklin stove, invented in 1743 and used for heating, was the lineal descendant of the fireplace, being at first only a portable down-draft iron fireplace that could be set into, or before, the chimney. It was soon elaborated into what was known as the Pennsylvania fireplace, with a grate and sliding doors. In common use for a period after the Revolution, it was followed by a variety of heaters burning wood and coal. The base burner, or magazine coal heater, was widely used before the general adoption of central heating.

Modern Stoves

Since gas and electricity have become generally available, the wood-burning or coal-burning range has been largely superseded by a wide variety of cooking apparatus, using natural or manufactured gas, oil, acetylene, gasoline, or electricity as fuel. In areas of the world where there is abundant sunshine, solar stoves are becoming increasingly popular. Their heat is supplied by the sun's rays, which are focused by means of a concave reflector. The microwave oven uses radiowaves of high frequency to cook foods very quickly without heating the oven itself.

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stove

[stōv]
(engineering)
A chamber within which a fuel-air mixture is burned to provide heat, the heat itself being radiated outward from the chamber; used for space heating, process-fluid heating, and steel blast furnaces.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

stove

any heating apparatus, such as a kiln
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Notably, a recent study that measured both personal [PM.sub.2.5] and personal CO exposure in pregnant Tanzanian women cooking with biomass stoves found that only [PM.sub.2.5] exposure was associated with adverse birth outcomes (Wylie et al.
Energy Conservation Through Improved Biomass Stoves
We also created indicator variables for any biomass stove, any kerosene stove and any gas stove, combining comparable primary and secondary stove types, and ran these in a model adjusted for the covariates in the final model (Table 3).
The main project, rifled "Improved Biomass Stove Intervention in Rural Mexico: Impact on the Respiratory Health of Women" (Romieu et al.
Ideally, electric stoves or low-emission biomass stoves, such as semigasifier stoves, or those with cleaner burning fuels (biogas or LPG) would be used.
The kitchens were monitored for 24 hr before and after introduction of a suite of improvements (improved biomass stoves, biogas) for P[M.sub.2.5], CO, S[O.sub.2], and ammonia.
Two years ago, the government removed 16 per cent VAT on LPG and efficient biomass stoves, and reduced import duties on fuel-efficient stoves from 25 per cent to 10 per cent.
Baldwin, "Biomass Stoves: Engineering Design, Development, and Dissemmination ., Virginia, Volunteers in Technical Assistance, 1987".
What makes people cook with improved biomass stoves? A comparative international review of stove programs.
Indoor pollution is mostly caused by cooking over coal, wood and biomass stoves. The WHO estimates that around 2.9 billion people worldwide live in homes using wood, coal or dung as their primary cooking fuel.
The EPA, in fact, invited AES to burn one of their biomass stoves on the White House lawn during a conference as an illustration of the fuels of the future.

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