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Methanogenesis (bacteria)

The microbial formation of methane, which is confined to anaerobic habitats where occurs the production of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, formic acid, methanol, methylamines, or acetate—the major substrates used by methanogenic microbes (methanogens). In fresh-water or marine sediments, in the intestinal tracts of animals, or in habitats engineered by humans such as sewage sludge or biomass digesters, these substrates are the products of anaerobic bacterial metabolism. Methanogens are terminal organisms in the anaerobic microbial food chain—the final product, methane, being poorly soluble, anaerobically inert, and not in equilibrium with the reaction which produces it.

Two highly specialized digestive organs, the rumen and the cecum, have been evolved by herbivores to delay the passage of cellulose fibers so that microbial fermentation may be complete. In these organs, large quantities of methane are produced from hydrogen and carbon dioxide or formic acid by methanogens. From the rumen, an average cow may belch 26 gallons (100 liters) of methane per day.

Methanogens are the only living organisms that produce methane as a way of life. The biochemistry of their metabolism is unique and definitively delineates the group. Two reductive biochemical strategies are employed: an eight-electron reduction of carbon dioxide to methane or a two-electron reduction of a methyl group to methane. All methogens form methane by reducing a methyl group. The major energy-yielding reactions used by methanogens utilize substrates such as hydrogen, formic acid, methanol, acetic acid, and methylamine. Dimethyl sulfide, carbon monoxide, and alcohols such as ethanol and propanol are substrates that are used less frequently. See Archaebacteria, Bacterial physiology and metabolism


The biosynthesis of the hydrocarbon methane; common in certain bacteria. Also known as bacterial methanogenesis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Tenders are invited for Construction and installation of biomethanation unit (2 tpd) at songaon site for the wet waste processing from the hotels, hostels, and non veg market, along with excavation and additional facilities.
They are neither doing biomethanation for wet waste nor producing Refuse- Derived Fuel.
Mesophilic biomethanation and treatment of poultry waste water using pilot scale USAB reactor.
Praj will provide key technologies for fermentation, distillation, and wastewater treatment including biomethanation followed by biocomposting.
This could theoretically produce 745m standard cubic feet of biogas through biomethanation according to estimates derived from a study by Veolia.
Effects of temperatures and organic loading rates on biomethanation of acidic petrochemical wastewater using an anaerobic upflow fixedfilm reactor, Bioresour Technology 82(1): 65-71.
Inoculum was collected from 30MT Vegetable market wastes Biomethanation plant at, Chennai, India.
Angels' team presented a plan on " Recovery of Methane from Cattle waste by biomethanation process and grid connected power generation", which was appreciated by the entire jury panel comprising eminent academicians, venture capitalists and business executives.