methanogenesis

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Methanogenesis (bacteria)

The microbial formation of methane, which is confined to anaerobic habitats where occurs the production of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, formic acid, methanol, methylamines, or acetate—the major substrates used by methanogenic microbes (methanogens). In fresh-water or marine sediments, in the intestinal tracts of animals, or in habitats engineered by humans such as sewage sludge or biomass digesters, these substrates are the products of anaerobic bacterial metabolism. Methanogens are terminal organisms in the anaerobic microbial food chain—the final product, methane, being poorly soluble, anaerobically inert, and not in equilibrium with the reaction which produces it.

Two highly specialized digestive organs, the rumen and the cecum, have been evolved by herbivores to delay the passage of cellulose fibers so that microbial fermentation may be complete. In these organs, large quantities of methane are produced from hydrogen and carbon dioxide or formic acid by methanogens. From the rumen, an average cow may belch 26 gallons (100 liters) of methane per day.

Methanogens are the only living organisms that produce methane as a way of life. The biochemistry of their metabolism is unique and definitively delineates the group. Two reductive biochemical strategies are employed: an eight-electron reduction of carbon dioxide to methane or a two-electron reduction of a methyl group to methane. All methogens form methane by reducing a methyl group. The major energy-yielding reactions used by methanogens utilize substrates such as hydrogen, formic acid, methanol, acetic acid, and methylamine. Dimethyl sulfide, carbon monoxide, and alcohols such as ethanol and propanol are substrates that are used less frequently. See Archaebacteria, Bacterial physiology and metabolism

methanogenesis

[¦meth·ə·nō′jen·ə·səs]
(biochemistry)
The biosynthesis of the hydrocarbon methane; common in certain bacteria. Also known as bacterial methanogenesis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Tenders are invited for Tender For The Supply And Installation Of Paper Recycling Unit And Proposals For Setting Up Of Biomethanation Project Barc-Nisargaruna Based On 0.
The technology produces organic manure and biogas after biomethanation.
Power packed presentations were made by Mr T Sriraman , Managing Director, Soltech Equipments and Mr V Shanmugam , Managing Director, Phocos India Pvt Ltd on Off-grid products Applications and Advantages; Mr Senthil Kumar Kalliyamoorthy , Head - Technical, Bonfiglioli Renewables Power Conversion India Pvt Ltd on Opportunities in Solar Sector and Dr A Sajidas , International Consultant - Biogas Managing Director, Biotech Renewable Energy presented Decentralized waste to electricity projects using Biomethanation technology.
Praj will provide key technologies for Fermentation, Distillation, Wastewater Treatment including biomethanation followed by Biocomposting.
Effects of temperatures and organic loading rates on biomethanation of acidic petrochemical wastewater using an anaerobic upflow fixedfilm reactor, Bioresour Technology 82(1): 65-71.
In addition to the utility's contract with BioEnergy Solutions, it is working to cultivate the next generation of biogas technologies through its biomethanation research project.
With this request for information, we hope to identify promising biomethanation technologies and understand what the market needs for support.
Biomethanation of spent wash--heavy metal inhibition of methanogenesis in synthetic medium.
Other renewable sources of power include fields of parabolic collectors that focus on a fixed hot water source (8) or solar ponds, crop waste cellulose that can be gasified for heat, electric and transportation applications, and power generated from wind, geothermal applications, ocean tides and waves, temperature variations between ocean surfaces and depths, hydropower installations, biomethanation (power from agricultural wastes), and biomass crops grown for energy use.
The report commences on its core analysis of biofuel from rice in a separate section beginning from the very basics of rice bran oil and processes involved in the generation of rice straw such as thermal combustion, carbonization, pyrolysis, gasification, biomethanation and hydrolysis which is then followed by fermentation.
Tenders are invited for Setting up of Biomethanation Plant based on BARC-NISARGRUNA for Segregated Biodegradable Soild waste in Periyanaickenpalayam Town Panchayat