Biostratigraphy

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biostratigraphy

[¦bī·ō·strə′tig·rə·fē]
(paleontology)
A part of paleontology concerned with the study of the conditions and deposition order of sedimentary rocks.

Biostratigraphy

 

a branch of stratigraphy which studies the distribution of fossil remains of organisms in sedimentary deposits with the object of determining the relative age and the correlations between layers of the same age in different territories. The task of biostratigraphy is the elaboration of scales of the relative age of layers (in various degrees of detail and of various scopes, but in zonal layers in particular). The succession of biostratigraphic zones reflects the change in geological cross section of fossil remains from a group of extinct organisms of different taxonomic classes or their systems. Of special importance in the differentiation of zones, and above all of biozones, are groups of extinct organisms that had relatively short life-spans but that attained widespread distribution, significant abundance, and variety (for example, nummulites, graptolites, and dinosaurs). Zones are frequently based on stages in the evolution of certain rapidly changing groups of extinct organisms (for example, corals of the subclass Rugosa). The study of the remains of ancient microscopic organisms (micropaleontology), the quantity of which can be extremely large even in small specimens (for example, from deep chinks), is important for the goals of biostratigraphy. Remnants of planktonic organisms (foraminifers, algae, and others) that were carried for great distances by currents allow zones of great territorial expanse to be distinguished. Fossil remains of plant spores and pollen, which were carried for great distances by the wind, are important for correlating deposits of maritime or continental origin that are of the same age. Biostratigraphy makes broad use of the methods of paleoecology for reconstructing the conditions under which ancient organisms existed in order to distinguish complexes of organisms of the same age living in different conditions from complexes of organism of different ages living in similar conditions.

REFERENCES

Menner, V. V. “Biostratigraficheskie osnovy sopostavleniia morskikh, lagunnykh i kontinental’nykh svit.” Tr. geologicheskogo instituta AN SSSR, 1962, issue 65.
Stratigraficheskaia klassifikalsiia, terminologiia i nomenklatura. Leningrad, 1965.
Stepanov, D. L. Printsipy i metody biostratigraficheskikh issledovanii. Leningrad, 1958.

R. L. MERKLIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The results point to the need for obtaining new high-resolution data from the historical stratotype sections of the Aseri, Lasnamagi and Uhaku stages, to reconcile the original stage concepts with the current biostratigraphic resolution available in Baltoscandia.
From the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries many systematic and biostratigraphic studies on the cephalopods collected from the upper Cenomanian and lower Turonian of the Iberian Trough were carried out, but only a few of the studied specimens were described and illustrated in an appropriate way.
A systematic, biostratigraphic, and paleobiogeographic reevaluation of the Siwalik Hipparionine horse assemblage from the Potwar Plateau, Northern Pakistan.
At the same level there appeared the short-ranging chitinozoan Armoricochitina reticulifera, making it a trustworthy biostratigraphic level.
2010) also noted that "the scarce biostratigraphic control does not permit a precise chronostratigraphic assessment of the marine transgression ruling the start of the carbonate sedimentation in the investigated area.
There have been several biostratigraphic and taxonomic studies about this group of animals.
Biostratigraphic study of Miocene Ostracoda of Newjersey, Muryland and Virginia.
Using a combined biostratigraphic and facies argument, Olsen (1981) argued that the McKay Basalt and the Five Islands volcanics represent the same set of lava flows as the North Mountain Basalt, concurring with Liew.
Total 30 samples were collected from bottom to top at different levels as shown in Fig-2 and 30 thin sections were prepared from hard as well as loose samples for biostratigraphic studies.
The conference has gained a lot of interest over time as one of the premier forums in the region that brings together technological and up-to-date geological, geophysical, geochemical, biostratigraphic advances in the region.