biodiversity

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biodiversity:

see biological diversitybiological diversity
or biodiversity,
the number of species in a given habitat. Scientists have variously estimated that there are from 3 to 30 million extant species, of which 2.
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Biodiversity

The variety of all living things; a contraction of biological diversity. Biodiversity can be measured on many biological levels ranging from genetic diversity within a species to the variety of ecosystems on Earth, but the term most commonly refers to the number of different species in a defined area.

Numbers of extant species for selected taxonomic groups
Number of Estimated number Percent
Kingdom Phylum species described of species described
Protista 100,000 250,000 40.0
Fungi Eumycota 80,000 1,500,000 5.3
Plantae Bryophyta 14,000 30,000 46.7
Tracheophyta 250,000 500,000 50.0
Animalia Nematoda 20,000 1,000,000 2.0
Arthropoda 1,250,000 20,000,000 5.0
Mollusca 100,000 200,000 50.0
Chordata 40,000 50,000 80.0
*With permission, modified from G. K. Meffe and C. R. Carroll, Principles of Conservation Biology, 1997.

Recent estimates of the total number of species range from 7 to 20 million, of which only about 1.75 million species have been scientifically described. The best-studied groups include plants and vertebrates (phylum Chordata), whereas poorly described groups include fungi, nematodes, and arthropods (see table). Species that live in the ocean and in soils remain poorly known. For most groups of species, there is a gradient of increasing diversity from the Poles to the Equator, and the vast majority of species are concentrated in the tropical and subtropical regions.

Human activities, such as direct harvesting of species, introduction of alien species, habitat destruction, and various forms of habitat degradation (including environmental pollution), have caused dramatic losses of biodiversity; current extinction rates are estimated to be 100–1000 times higher than prehuman extinction rates.

Some measure of biodiversity is responsible for providing essential functions and services that directly improve human life. For example, many medicines, clothing fibers, and industrial products and the vast majority of foods are derived from naturally occurring species. In addition, species are the key working parts of natural ecosystems. They are responsible for maintenance of the gaseous composition of the atmosphere, regulation of the global climate, generation and maintenance of soils, recycling of nutrients and waste products, and biological control of pest species. Ecosystems surely would not function if all species were lost, although it is unclear just how many species are necessary for an ecosystem to function properly.

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Biodiversity

The tendency in ecosystems, when undisturbed, to have a great variety of species forming a complex web of interactions. Human population pressure and resource consumption tend to reduce biodiversity dangerously; diverse communities are less subject to catastrophic disruption.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

biodiversity

[‚bī·ō·di′vər·sə·dē]
(ecology)
The range of living organisms (such as plant and animal species) in an environment during a specific time period.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

biodiversity

the existence of a wide variety of plant and animal species in their natural environments, which is the aim of conservationists concerned about the indiscriminate destruction of rainforests and other habitats
www.biosis.org.uk/zrdocs/zoolinfo/biodiv.htm
www.eti.uva.nl
www.biodiv.org
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
He was also the coordinator for the Asia-Pacific region for Bioversity International, an NGO that is focused on the banana industry.
Molina as a Bioversity coordinator in the Asia Pacific, had to negotiate with the Taiwan Banana Research Institute to share their selections of tissue culture variants that they had used to solve their TR4 Fusarium Wilt problem.
Utilizou-se de 16 descritores quantitativos do Manual de Descritores para Mamao [Catalogo de Germoplasma de Mamao (Carica papaya L.)], adaptado pela Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura a partir dos descritores inicialmente estabelecidos pelo International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR, 1988), atualmente Bioversity International, com algumas alteracoes sugeridas por Dantas et al.
Partnering with an indigenous community organization, the Union of Indigenous and Peasant Communities (UNORCAC); Bioversity International, an international organization with a mandate to advance conservation and use of genetic diversity worldwide; and the Ecuadorian National Agricultural Research Institute (INIAP), ARS's equivalent in Ecuador, Williams helped set up and now advises a program designed to promote conservation and increase use of local crops in the area.
(2) Bioversity International, Via dei Tre Denari, 472/a - 00054 Maccarese, Rome, Italy
When he came back to the Philippines in 1995, he was tapped by Bioversity International, an NGO focused on bananas, to be the agency's regional coordinator for Asia and the Pacific.
We also thank the World Agroforestry Center, Bioversity International, and the Center for International Forestry Research for the funding and support through the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry that made this analysis possible; and Cornell University for ongoing access to their marvelous libraries.
Los descriptores de caracterizacion tanto como de evaluacion son especificos y deben ser definidos para cada nuevo cultivo (BIOVERSITY INTERNATIONAL, 2007).