The transition from planktotrophic to lecithotrophic development involves the loss of functionally specialized structures for the capture of food (ciliary bands) and pulsation of the larval body, which are characteristic of the bipinnaria
regularis is included here for comparative purposes as the second bipinnaria
examined with the synaptotagmin marker.
Small processes on the side of the body appeared at the part corresponding to the bipinnarian arms of bipinnaria
In contrast, Saranchova and Fly-achinskaya (2001) recorded 100% survival of bipinnaria
The nervous system of the auricularia, bipinnaria
, and tornaria develops in association with the ciliary bands (4-11).
Five days after initial fertilization, bipinnaria
larvae were gently removed from the culture and preserved in 95% ethanol for genotyping.
Unlike plutei, the bipinnaria
larvae of asteroids lack internal skeletons, but under low food conditions the homologous ciliated band was lengthened by elaboration of body margins or by an increase in overall body size (Strathmann, 1989; George, 1994, 1999).
Initially, cloning larvae were thought to be restricted to species in the genus Luidia, which have bipinnaria
larvae that lack a brachiolar complex and are, in some Luidia species, quite large (Wilson, 1978; Domanski, 1984; Bosch et at., 1989).
and brachiolaria larvae of the asteroids Luidia foliolata and Pisaster ochraceus were surgically bisected into anterior and posterior portions, and the regeneration process was followed for 2 weeks (Vickery and McClintock, 1998).
Reconstruction of bipinnaria
larvae from dissociated embryonic cells of the starfish Asterina pectinifera.
Ciliary band innervation in the bipinnaria
larva of Pisaster ochraceus.
The capacity for asexual reproduction (cloning) in sea star larvae was first suggested over 60 years ago from observations of the bipinnaria
larvae of Luidia sarsi (Tattersall and Sheppard, 1934), but subsequent laboratory experiments indicated that these larvae were incapable of asexual reproduction (Wilson, 1978).