bipolar disorder

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Related to Bipolar depression: manic depression, unipolar depression

bipolar disorder,

formerly

manic-depressive disorder

or

manic-depression,

severe mental disorder involving manic episodes that are usually accompanied by episodes of depressiondepression,
in psychiatry, a symptom of mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of loss, sadness, hopelessness, failure, and rejection. The two major types of mood disorder are unipolar disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, whose sufferers are
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. The term "manic-depression" was introduced by the German psychiatrist Emil KraepelinKraepelin, Emil
, 1856–1926, German psychiatrist, educated at Würzburg (M.D., 1878). He also studied under Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, and was appointed professor of psychiatry at the Univ.
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 in 1896. The manic phase of the disorder is characterized by an abnormally elevated or irritable mood, grandiosity, sleeplessness, extravagance, and a tendency toward irrational judgment. During the depressed phase, the person tends to appear lethargic and withdrawn, shows a lack of concentration, and expresses feelings of worthlessness, self-blame, and guilt. This dual character of the disorder has given it the name bipolar disorder, in contrast to the unipolar depression symptomatic of the majority of mood disorders. The symptoms range in intensity and pattern and may not be recognized at first. Individuals suffering from bipolar disorder may have long periods in their lives without episodes of mania or depression, but manic-depressives have the highest suicide rate of any group with a psychological disorder.

Incidence

Estimates suggest that about 2 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorders. Symptoms usually appear in adolescence or early adulthood and continue throughout life. The disorder occurs in males and females equally and is found more frequently in close relatives of people already known to have it.. It has had notable incidence among creative individuals, affecting such artists as Hector Berlioz, Gustav Mahler, Ernest Hemingway, and Virginia Woolf.

Treatment

Therapy includes lithiumlithium
[Gr.,=stone], metallic chemical element; symbol Li; at. no. 3; interval in which at. wt. ranges 6.938–6.997; m.p. about 180.54°C;; b.p. about 1,342°C;; sp. gr. .534 at 20°C;; valence +1. Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal.
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 (to control mania and stabilize mood swings), anticonvulsant drugs such as valproate and carbamazepine, and antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
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. Electroconvulsive therapyelectroconvulsive therapy
in psychiatry, treatment of mood disorders by means of electricity; the broader term "shock therapy" also includes the use of chemical agents. The therapeutic possibilities of these treatments were discovered in the 1930s by Manfred Sakel, a Polish
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 has been useful in cases where other treatments have had little success. Psychotherapy can provide support to the patient and the family.

Bibliography

See F. K. Goodwin and K. R. Jamison, Manic-Depressive Illness (1990); D. Healy, Mania: A Short History of Bipolar Disorder (2011); publications of the National Institute of Mental Health.

bipolar disorder

[bī′pō·lər dis′ȯrd·ər]
(psychology)
A major affective disorder in which there are episodes of both mania and depression. Also known as manic-depressive illness.
References in periodicals archive ?
Although it may be difficult to distinguish between unipolar and bipolar depression, especially in the absence of a history of distinct manic or hypomanic episodes, we find the following criteria to be useful in making that determination.
According to the companies, VRAYLAR is an oral, once daily atypical antipsychotic approved for the acute treatment of adults with manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (3 to 6 mg/day) and for the treatment of depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (bipolar depression) in adults (1.5 or 3 mg/day).
Secondly, it is important to note that hypersomnia is an atypical feature of bipolar depression and it is possible that this clinical subgroup of patients is more vulnerable to modafinil induced psychosis than patients without atypical features.
In contrast, evidence in support of the use of at least some of the second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) mono- or add-on therapy either for MDD [12,13] or bipolar depression [14-18] is increasing over the time, though additional safe and effective Food and Drug Administration- (FDA-) approved SGAs for bipolar depression are solicited [19].
The aims of this study were (i) to compare Quality of Life (QOL) of patients with bipolar depression to those with unipolar depression and (ii) to assess the association of different domains of QOL with severity of clinical Symptoms and level of functioning in bipolar and unipolar depressive patients group.
* Integrate treatment of bipolar depression into primary care practice
* Treatment of major depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (bipolar depression) as monotherapy and as adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate in adults
* Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS) for bipolar depression
Its efficacy in treating bipolar depression and mixed states is less well-ascertained.
Seroquel XL is a prescription-only drug used to treat disorders such as schizophrenia, mania and bipolar depression.
In 20 chapters, a group of mental health specialists from Europe, North America, and Australia discuss the treatment of mania, the pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression, general guidelines, psychosocial interventions, physical treatments, the early stages of illness, treating the elderly and women, physical health issues, associated anxiety, co-morbidities with addictions, management of cyclothymia, sleep considerations, quality of life and psychosocial functioning, integrated care, training and assessment issues, and brain imaging.