bipolar disorder

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bipolar disorder,

formerly

manic-depressive disorder

or

manic-depression,

severe mental disorder involving manic episodes that are usually accompanied by episodes of depressiondepression,
in psychiatry, a symptom of mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of loss, sadness, hopelessness, failure, and rejection. The two major types of mood disorder are unipolar disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, whose sufferers are
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. The term "manic-depression" was introduced by the German psychiatrist Emil KraepelinKraepelin, Emil
, 1856–1926, German psychiatrist, educated at Würzburg (M.D., 1878). He also studied under Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, and was appointed professor of psychiatry at the Univ.
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 in 1896. The manic phase of the disorder is characterized by an abnormally elevated or irritable mood, grandiosity, sleeplessness, extravagance, and a tendency toward irrational judgment. During the depressed phase, the person tends to appear lethargic and withdrawn, shows a lack of concentration, and expresses feelings of worthlessness, self-blame, and guilt. This dual character of the disorder has given it the name bipolar disorder, in contrast to the unipolar depression symptomatic of the majority of mood disorders. The symptoms range in intensity and pattern and may not be recognized at first. Individuals suffering from bipolar disorder may have long periods in their lives without episodes of mania or depression, but manic-depressives have the highest suicide rate of any group with a psychological disorder.

Incidence

Estimates suggest that about 2 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorders. Symptoms usually appear in adolescence or early adulthood and continue throughout life. The disorder occurs in males and females equally and is found more frequently in close relatives of people already known to have it.. It has had notable incidence among creative individuals, affecting such artists as Hector Berlioz, Gustav Mahler, Ernest Hemingway, and Virginia Woolf.

Treatment

Therapy includes lithiumlithium
[Gr.,=stone], metallic chemical element; symbol Li; at. no. 3; interval in which at. wt. ranges 6.938–6.997; m.p. about 180.54°C;; b.p. about 1,342°C;; sp. gr. .534 at 20°C;; valence +1. Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal.
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 (to control mania and stabilize mood swings), anticonvulsant drugs such as valproate and carbamazepine, and antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
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. Electroconvulsive therapyelectroconvulsive therapy
in psychiatry, treatment of mood disorders by means of electricity; the broader term "shock therapy" also includes the use of chemical agents. The therapeutic possibilities of these treatments were discovered in the 1930s by Manfred Sakel, a Polish
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 has been useful in cases where other treatments have had little success. Psychotherapy can provide support to the patient and the family.

Bibliography

See F. K. Goodwin and K. R. Jamison, Manic-Depressive Illness (1990); D. Healy, Mania: A Short History of Bipolar Disorder (2011); publications of the National Institute of Mental Health.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

bipolar disorder

[bī′pō·lər dis′ȯrd·ər]
(psychology)
A major affective disorder in which there are episodes of both mania and depression. Also known as manic-depressive illness.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Assessment of safety, tolerability and effectiveness of adjunctive aripiprazole to lithium/valproate in bipolar mania: a 46-week, open-label extension following a 6-week double-blind study.
Under the potassium supplementation and lithium treatment, the patient's limb muscle weakness and bipolar mania gradually remitted.
A double-blind, randomized comparison of the efficacy and safety of intramuscular injections of olanzapine, lorazepam, or placebo in treating acutely agitated patients diagnosed with bipolar mania. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2001;21:389-397.
Ziprasidone in the treatment of acute bipolar mania: A three-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial.
* Comment: Safety and efficacy for treatment of bipolar mania are based on a randomized, double-blind study of 169 people aged 10-17 years experiencing a mixed or manic episode.
[sup][21] Topiramate, despite the lack of Food and Drug Administration -approved indication for acute mania, [sup][22] is often utilized as second-line treatments in acute bipolar mania. [sup][23] The combination of quetiapine (metabolized by CYP3A4 to an active metabolite) and topiramate, an inducer of CYP3A4, has possible synergistic effects and the risk of increased body temperature and decreased sweating.
Three other bipolar diagnoses were applied to two patients each: bipolar depression, bipolar mania, or mixed-episode bipolar disorder, David L.
The drug is already approved in the United States as a monotherapy for acute treatment of bipolar depression and mania, a monotherapy for acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia, and as an adjunctive therapy for acute bipolar mania.
-- The majority of a Food and Drug Administration advisory panel agreed that the data on the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine indicated that it was effective and had an acceptable safety profile for treating two pediatric indications: schizophrenia and bipolar mania in patients aged 13-17 years.
Ziprasidone in acute bipolar mania: a 21-day randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled replication trial.
Several formulations also became available, including a short-acting injection indicated for agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania, and oral disintegrating tablets and an oral solution that could substitute for the regular tablet.
Forest Laboratories Holdings Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of fully integrated, specialty pharmaceutical company Forest Laboratories Inc (NYSE:FRX), announced on Monday the acquisition of exclusive rights in the US for Saphris (asenapine) sublingual tablets, a treatment for adult patients with schizophrenia or acute bipolar mania, from Merck Sharp & Dohme B.V, a wholly owned subsidiary of Merck & Co Inc (NYSE:MRK).