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, town, Lower Saxony, Germany
Bergen, town, Lower Saxony, N Germany, 13 mi (21 km) NW of Celle. Building materials are manufactured. A North Atlantic Treaty Organization base is outside the town; a group of Neolithic dolmens is within the base. Nearby is the former site of Bergen-Belsen. Originally a prisoner-of-war camp, it was converted to a concentration camp in 1942. Some 100,000 camp inmates, among them Anne Frank and Josef Čapek, died of disease, starvation, and other causes. A museum and memorial are there.


, city, Norway

Bergen (bĕrˈgən), city, capital of Hordaland co., SW Norway, situated on inlets of the North Sea. It is Norway's second largest city and a major shipping center. Formerly a major textile and ship-building center, the city's economy is now mainly service-based, including educational, medical, technical, insurance, financial, and retailing services. A small shipyard and ship-repair facilities remain. Other manufacturing includes fish processing, steel, machinery, and electrical equipment.

Founded c.1070 by Olaf III (Olaf Kyrre), Bergen soon became the largest city of medieval Norway. It was often the royal seat, and the earliest coronations took place there. The city became an establishment of the Hanseatic League in the mid-14th cent. The Hansa merchants, enjoying extraterritorial privileges, imposed their unpopular rule on Bergen until 1560, and thereafter continued to have influence until the late 18th cent. During the disturbances accompanying the Reformation (16th cent.), most of the city's old churches and monasteries were destroyed. However, Bergen remained Norway's leading city until the rise of Oslo in the 19th cent.

The center of Bergen was rebuilt after a severe fire in 1916. Nevertheless, the city retains many impressive monuments of its medieval past. One of its most famous buildings is Bergenhus fortress, which contains Haakon's Hall (1261); it was rebuilt after being heavily damaged in World War II. Other old buildings include the Quay, a group of wooden quayside houses rebuilt in their medieval style after a fire in 1702; St. Mary's Church (12th cent.); Fantoft Stavkirke (12th cent., destroyed by fire in 1994 and reconstructed); and, just south of Bergen, the 12th-century ruins of Norway's first Cistercian monastery.

One of the chief cultural and educational centers of Norway, Bergen has a university (founded 1948), a school of economics and business administration, several scientific institutes, and a Hanseatic museum. Bergen's theater was founded (1850) by the composer and violinist Ole Bull and gained international recognition under such directors as Ibsen and Bjørnson. The dramatist Ludvig Holberg and the composer Edvard Grieg were born in Bergen.

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city and port in western Norway on the shore of the North Sea, deep within By Fjord. After Oslo, Bergen is the second city in the country in population and economic importance. Population, 117,000 (1968); 180,000 including suburbs.

The port of Bergen handled over 3 million tons of freight in 1965. Industry includes shipbuilding, machine building, food processing, textiles, and garment making. Bergen has had a university since 1946 and has a higher school of business.

Bergen has the remains of a fortress with the Haakonshallen (the king’s hall, 1246–61) and the Rosencrantz Tower (1560’s), the Maria Church (12th century) and baroque-style dwellings from the 17th and 18th centuries. Bergen has been built by systematic planning since 1855. Sections of the city that were destroyed between 1940 and 1945 are being rebuilt according to new plans, and new sections are being created, such as the Strimmelen district, 1959, designed by architect H. Grieg.

Bergen also has the Vestlandske Museum of Applied Art (founded in 1887), the Rasmus Meyer collection, art galleries, the Museum of History, the Hanseatic Museum, the Maritime and Fishing Museum, and the Edvard Grieg House (Troldhaugen).

Founded around 1070, Bergen was one of the major trade centers of northwestern Europe in the Middle Ages. The Hanseatic merchants founded a trading station in Bergen around 1350 and seized full control of the city in the 15th century (finally losing power in 1630). Bergen was occupied by German fascist troops from Apr. 9,1940, to May 8, 1945.


Lexov, E. Bergen. Bergen, 1935.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. a port in SW Norway: chief city in medieval times. Pop.: 237 430 (2004 est.)
2. the Flemish name for Mons
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Whichever way one decides to categorise it, however, we believe that politicians also are conscious of the potential for sport success (and failure) to impact the national psyche, and endeavour to BIRG of sporting success for their own political gain.
Birg straightforwardly traces the shortfall to the one third of German women who now remain childless.
Several studies have showed the BIRG effect (Cialdini et al, 1976) with political yard signs (e.g., Boen & Vanbesalaere, 2002; Boen et al.
What Birg said he would like to see is the further evolution of the specialty retailer.
(1976) coined the 'Basking in Reflected Glory' (BIRG) effect, where fans publicise their association with a successful team by wearing more identifying clothing and logos after a victory than a defeat.
(21.) Vestris G, Rolain JM, Fournier PE, Birg ML, Enea M, Patrice JY, et al.
Regarding highly identified sport fans, Wann and Branscombe (1990) found that fans possessing a strong identification with their favorite team were more likely to BIRG and less likely to CORF for long periods of time as compared to fans possessing a weak identification with their favorite team.
Team identification is often expressed by the phenomenon of basking in reflected glory (BIRG) or publicly announcing one's affiliation with a team.
As End (2001) suggested, "the tendency to BIRG may be the result of fans perceiving that others will view them as being successful as a consequence of their association with a successful team." (p.
(9.) Raoult D, Birg ML, La SB, Fournier PE, Enea M, Lepidi H, et al.
However, activating spectators' identification (e.g., highlighting rivalries, showcasing highly identified fans, providing opportunities to bask in reflected glory or BIRG) would be an important aspect of the marketing of fans' favorite teams as they were much higher on the achievement motive when watching their favorite team play.