Biron, Ernst Johann von

Biron or Biren, Ernst Johann von

(ĕrnst yōhän` fən bē`rôn, bē`rən), 1690–1772, duke of Courland (1737–43, 1763–69), favorite of Czarina AnnaAnna
(Anna Ivanovna) , 1693–1740, czarina of Russia (1730–40), daughter of Ivan V and niece of Peter I (Peter the Great). On the death of her distant cousin, Peter II, she was chosen czarina by the supreme privy council, which thus hoped to gain power for itself.
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 of Russia. A Baltic nobleman, he rose to an all-powerful position under Anna, through whose influence he was elected duke of Courland. After Anna's death (1740) he was made regent for her grandnephew Ivan VIIvan VI,
1740–64, czar of Russia (1740–41), great-grandson of Ivan V. He was the son of Prince Anthony Ulric of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and of Anna Leopoldovna.
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. Biron's unscrupulousness had earned him general hatred, and shortly after he became regent a coup ousted and banished him (1741). In 1743, Augustus IIIAugustus III,
1696–1763, king of Poland (1735–63) and, as Frederick Augustus II, elector of Saxony (1733–63); son of Augustus II, whom he succeeded in Saxony.
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 of Poland deprived him of his duchy. Czar Peter IIIPeter III,
1728–62, czar of Russia (1762), son of Charles Frederick, dispossessed duke of Holstein-Gottorp, and of Anna Petrovna, daughter of Peter the Great. He succeeded to the throne on the death of his aunt, Czarina Elizabeth.
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 later recalled him and Catherine IICatherine II
or Catherine the Great,
1729–96, czarina of Russia (1762–96). Rise to Power

A German princess, the daughter of Christian Augustus, prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, she emerged from the obscurity of her relatively modest background in 1744
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 secured the restoration of his title, but Biron never regained his former influence.
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