Bishops' Wars

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Bishops' Wars,

two brief campaigns (1639 and 1640) of the Scots against Charles I of England. When Charles attempted to strengthen episcopacy in Scotland by imposing (1637) the English Book of Common Prayer, the Scots countered by pledging themselves in the National Covenant (1638) to restore Presbyterianism. A general assembly of the Scottish church abolished episcopacy. The first war was ended without fighting by the Pacification of Berwick, in which Charles conceded the Scottish right to a free church assembly and a free parliament. However, the assembly that met promptly reaffirmed the covenant. In spite of the refusal of his Short Parliament to vote him money, Charles managed to raise another army, but it was unable to stop the Scots from invading England and occupying Northumberland and Durham. Charles made peace at Ripon (Oct., 1640), and his promise there to pay an indemnity to the Scots necessitated his calling the Long Parliament. See English civil warEnglish civil war,
1642–48, the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the "parliamentarians," that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The floodgates of controversy have remained open ever since, and Bishop's war record and reputation have continued to swirl and eddy, beginning with the 1985 Senate committee formed to defend his reputation.
The Second Bishop's War of 1640 resulted in victory for the Covenanters, who occupied the north of England with Moray serving as Quartermaster General of the Scottish Army of occupations.
His continual fight for veterans' recognition include taking on the CBC over such issues as a defamatory portrayal of Billy Bishop's war experiences and the ultimate insult, The Valour and the Horror.
21) So while Bishop's "Roosters" is well-known as Bishop's war poem (Bishop said she was thinking "of those aerial views of dismal little towns in Finland and Norway, when the Germans took over" [OA, 96]), it is more precisely the poem's linkage of national and sexual aggression that marks it as a product of the Second World War.
After the further escalation of the Glasgow Assembly, and still more the First Bishop's War, Traquair's job in 1639-40 was similarly to prepare for a second war.