The Covenanters (so-called because of the 'National Covenant' virtually the entire country had signed, promising to defend their national church against King Charles' attempt to impose the Book of Common Prayer, which had sparked the earlier Bishops' Wars
) had invaded England after Parliament secured their support in their on-going war with the King.
They consist of entries on the major faith traditions, including Zoroastrianism, Greek and Roman gods, Celtic and Norse gods, Baha'i, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, and Sikhism; the religious dimensions of major wars and conflicts, such as the American Revolution, the Civil War, the Cold War, World War I, World War II, and the medieval European crusades against Middle Eastern Islam; religious aspects of smaller wars and conflicts, such as the Anglo-Sikh Wars, the Balkan Wars, the Bishops' Wars
, and the German Peasants' War; and key battles, leaders, philosophers, and theologians, as well as weapons.
Although the main focus was on the centres of economic and political power, the communities of the North-east played a significant part in the conflict, particularly during the Bishops' Wars
that preceded the English Civil Wars.
Braddick begins with the disruption of the 'halcyon time' of Charles I's personal rule by the Bishops' Wars
of 1639 and 1640.
Part one argues that the English had a well-established and, by then, inflamed fear of Catholic invasion, and that their economy was already in distress as a result of European conflicts and the Bishops' Wars
. The sense of crisis, however, was driven to new heights by the general disorder of troops raised to fight the Scots, and the frustrated and unfulfilled hopes surrounding the Short Parliament, which culminated in the Lambeth Riots.
The war that we parochially tend to call English actually began north of the border in what were called the Bishops' Wars
, fought over the form of state religion.
Principal wars: First (1639) and Second (1640) Bishops' Wars
; First English Civil War (1642-1646); Third English Civil War (1650-1651).
These cover a variety of topics from ship money and the Bishops' Wars
to pew disputes and duelling, from heralds' visitations and grants of arms to brawls in the street and quarrels at race meetings.
Principal wars: Thirty Years' War (1618-1648); First (1639) and Second (1640) Bishops' Wars
; First (1642-1646) and Second (1648-1649) Civil Wars.
Hatred of the house of Argyll and the urge to regain from the Campbells the forfeited lands of his Clan Donald ancestors underpinned Antrim's eagerness to rally to the King's cause during the Bishops' Wars
; while a determination to prevent Clan Donald from re-asserting its authority in Scotland drove Argyll deep into the Covenanting camp.
Principal wars: War with France and Spain (1625-1628); First (1639) and Second (1640) Bishops' Wars
; First English Civil War (1642-1646).
Principal wars: First Bishops' War
(1639); First (1642-1646) and Second (1647-1648) Civil Wars.