Bishops' Wars


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Bishops' Wars,

two brief campaigns (1639 and 1640) of the Scots against Charles I of England. When Charles attempted to strengthen episcopacy in Scotland by imposing (1637) the English Book of Common Prayer, the Scots countered by pledging themselves in the National Covenant (1638) to restore Presbyterianism. A general assembly of the Scottish church abolished episcopacy. The first war was ended without fighting by the Pacification of Berwick, in which Charles conceded the Scottish right to a free church assembly and a free parliament. However, the assembly that met promptly reaffirmed the covenant. In spite of the refusal of his Short Parliament to vote him money, Charles managed to raise another army, but it was unable to stop the Scots from invading England and occupying Northumberland and Durham. Charles made peace at Ripon (Oct., 1640), and his promise there to pay an indemnity to the Scots necessitated his calling the Long Parliament. See English civil warEnglish civil war,
1642–48, the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the "parliamentarians," that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The Covenanters (so-called because of the 'National Covenant' virtually the entire country had signed, promising to defend their national church against King Charles' attempt to impose the Book of Common Prayer, which had sparked the earlier Bishops' Wars) had invaded England after Parliament secured their support in their on-going war with the King.
They consist of entries on the major faith traditions, including Zoroastrianism, Greek and Roman gods, Celtic and Norse gods, Baha'i, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, and Sikhism; the religious dimensions of major wars and conflicts, such as the American Revolution, the Civil War, the Cold War, World War I, World War II, and the medieval European crusades against Middle Eastern Islam; religious aspects of smaller wars and conflicts, such as the Anglo-Sikh Wars, the Balkan Wars, the Bishops' Wars, and the German Peasants' War; and key battles, leaders, philosophers, and theologians, as well as weapons.
Although the main focus was on the centres of economic and political power, the communities of the North-east played a significant part in the conflict, particularly during the Bishops' Wars that preceded the English Civil Wars.
Braddick begins with the disruption of the 'halcyon time' of Charles I's personal rule by the Bishops' Wars of 1639 and 1640.
Part one argues that the English had a well-established and, by then, inflamed fear of Catholic invasion, and that their economy was already in distress as a result of European conflicts and the Bishops' Wars. The sense of crisis, however, was driven to new heights by the general disorder of troops raised to fight the Scots, and the frustrated and unfulfilled hopes surrounding the Short Parliament, which culminated in the Lambeth Riots.
The war that we parochially tend to call English actually began north of the border in what were called the Bishops' Wars, fought over the form of state religion.
Principal wars: First (1639) and Second (1640) Bishops' Wars; First English Civil War (1642-1646); Third English Civil War (1650-1651).
These cover a variety of topics from ship money and the Bishops' Wars to pew disputes and duelling, from heralds' visitations and grants of arms to brawls in the street and quarrels at race meetings.
Principal wars: Thirty Years' War (1618-1648); First (1639) and Second (1640) Bishops' Wars; First (1642-1646) and Second (1648-1649) Civil Wars.
Hatred of the house of Argyll and the urge to regain from the Campbells the forfeited lands of his Clan Donald ancestors underpinned Antrim's eagerness to rally to the King's cause during the Bishops' Wars; while a determination to prevent Clan Donald from re-asserting its authority in Scotland drove Argyll deep into the Covenanting camp.
Principal wars: War with France and Spain (1625-1628); First (1639) and Second (1640) Bishops' Wars; First English Civil War (1642-1646).
Principal wars: First Bishops' War (1639); First (1642-1646) and Second (1647-1648) Civil Wars.