Bishops' Wars

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Bishops' Wars,

two brief campaigns (1639 and 1640) of the Scots against Charles I of England. When Charles attempted to strengthen episcopacy in Scotland by imposing (1637) the English Book of Common Prayer, the Scots countered by pledging themselves in the National Covenant (1638) to restore Presbyterianism. A general assembly of the Scottish church abolished episcopacy. The first war was ended without fighting by the Pacification of Berwick, in which Charles conceded the Scottish right to a free church assembly and a free parliament. However, the assembly that met promptly reaffirmed the covenant. In spite of the refusal of his Short Parliament to vote him money, Charles managed to raise another army, but it was unable to stop the Scots from invading England and occupying Northumberland and Durham. Charles made peace at Ripon (Oct., 1640), and his promise there to pay an indemnity to the Scots necessitated his calling the Long Parliament. See English civil warEnglish civil war,
1642–48, the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the "parliamentarians," that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Giles are punctuated with bloodshed: the Bishops Wars, the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, the persecution of Covenanters and armed rebellions against government forces.
Fissel starts by describing the events of the two Bishops Wars before looking at the institutions which fought them, such as the council of war, the command structure, and ordnance.
If Fissel qualifies as a revisionist by concluding that Charles I was responsible for the debacle of the Bishops Wars, and by implication for the disaster of what has recently been characterized as the War of the Three Kingdoms, he nonetheless belongs to an earlier school of thought by focusing on the institutions of government.