Bismuth Ores

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Bismuth Ores


mineral formations containing bismuth in quantities that make commercial exploitation feasible. Bismuth is found in ores both in the form of native minerals and as an impurity in some sulfides and thio salts of other minerals. In world practice, approximately 90 percent of all recoverable bismuth is extracted as a by-product during the processing of lead-zinc, copper, and tin ores and concentrates containing hundredths and tenths of a percent bismuth. Deposits of actual bismuth ores containing 1 percent bismuth and more are rare. The bismuth comprising such ores is native bismuth (contains 98.5-99 percent Bi), bismuthinite Bi2S3 (81.30 percent), tetradymite Bi2Te2S (56.3-59.3 percent), cosalite Pb2Bi2S5 (42 percent), bismite Bi2O3 (89.7 percent), and bismuthite Bi2CO3(OH)4 (88.5-91.5 percent).

All endogenous deposits of bismuth ores are postmagmatic and hydrothermal and are genetically associated with granite intrusive complexes.

The main types of endogenous deposits of bismuthic ores are greisen and quartz vein formations with tungsten, beryl, molybdenite, bismuthinite, and cosalite (Chinese People’s Republic, Peru; in the USSR—Kazakhstan, eastern Transbaikalia, and other locations); scarn (scheelite, copper, and complex deposits) with bismuthinite and various thio salts of bismuth (Clifton and Bisbee in Arizona, USA); pyrites with bismuth, mostly in scattered form (Cerro de Pasco, Peru); hydrothermal—gold and bismuth (Australia [Victoria deposit], Canada, and the USA [including Alaska]); arsenic and bismuth (San Gregorio in Peru); copper and bismuth (Boccheggiano in the province of Tuscany, Italy); tin sulfides with bismuth minerals (the Bolivian tin belt—the Potosi, Oruro, La Paz, and Tazna deposits); polymetallic deposits containing bismuth (the USSR—eastern Transbaikalia, the Rudnyi Altai); and cobalt-nickel-silver-uranium-bismuth (Cobalt in Canada, Asuelo in Spain, and Annaberg and Schneeberg in the German Democratic Republic). Under exogenous conditions, the destruction of the primary deposits leads to the formation of alluvial and deluvial-alluvial deposits with basobismuthite and bismuthite.


Bateman, A. M. Promyshlennye mineral’nye mestorozhdeniia. Moscow, 1949. (Translated from English.)
Trebovaniia promyshlennosti k kachestvu mineral’nogo syr’ia, part 28: B. I. Rozov, Vismut, 2nd ed. Moscow. 1961.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Apollo's current core business is mining of tellurium and bismuth ores, extraction of high-purity metals, compounds, and target materials for thin-film solar cells, cell modules and solar electronic products.
Minerals and ores are then methodically discussed in chemical order, with chapters on gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, iron, antimony, mercury, cobalt and bismuth ores, each broken down into the different species or varieties deemed significant.
Bismuth is usually produced as a byproduct from the treatment of ores of other metals, principally lead and copper, but also tungsten, tin, zinc, silver and gold.[4] In Bolivia, however, it is commercially feasible to recover bismuth directly from bismuth ores. The sole U.S.