In Japan, mussel species conservation deserves urgent attention as 11 endemic species and 7 subspecies of bitterling (a freshwater fish) require live freshwater mussels for their reproduction.
Several mussel species, including Unio douglasiae nipponensis and the endangered bitterling Acheilognatlius longipinnis, were abundant in the latter until 2006, at which point they disappeared (Ogawa et al.
The most numerous species in the otters' fish diet were bitterling (average 40%), gudgeon (16%) and three-spined stickleback (13%; see Fig.
Bitterling, gudgeon and three-spined stickleback, consumed most frequently by otters, were also the most abundant species in the combined catches (on average 35,25 and 21 %, respectively; see Fig.
The costs and benefits in an unusual symbiosis: experimental evidence that bitterling
fish (Rhodeus sericeus) are parasites of unionid mussels in Europe.
He discovered the breeding of the bitterling
, a small silvery fish, and he realised that Pitman's shorthand could actually be used to record bird sounds.
Particularly in question is the black bass, which eats the bitterling
and other small indigenous fish.
The festival's family-oriented fare is perfect for Brimstone Entertainment and Distribution, said Shane Bitterling
, manager of acquisitions.
Reproductive characteristics and host use of two populations of the Korean bitterling
, Acheilognathus signifer, which uses mussels as a host, were investigated from April to July in 2011 and 2013.
Furthermore, some species of freshwater bivalves aid the reproduction of the Japanese bitterling
Rhodeus ocellatus, an endangered fish species in Japanese freshwater ecosystems, by allowing R.
These relate to the relocation of the Rose Bitterling
fish species, the establishment of one or more alternative egretrey sites, the treatment of arsenic identified in the Kwu Tung North New Development Area, and a compensatory tree-planting plan, Prof Lam said.
Such restoration will have a beneficial impact on the European bitterling
, spined loach, bluethroat, common kingfisher, little bittern and purple heron.