Blackfoot


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Blackfoot,

Native North Americans of the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They occupied in the early 19th cent. a large range of territory around the Upper Missouri (above the Yellowstone) and North Saskatchewan rivers W to the Rockies. Their name derives from the fact that they dyed their moccasins black. There were three main tribes—the Siksika, or Blackfoot proper; the Piegan; and the Kainah, or Blood. Although they did not form a unified political entity, they were united in defending their lands and in warfare. The Atsina (related to the Arapaho) and the Athapascan-speaking Sarsi were allied with the Blackfoot group. The Blackfoot were unremittingly hostile toward neighboring tribes and usually toward white men; intrusions upon Blackfoot lands were efficiently repelled. Prior to the mid-18th cent. they had moved into the N Great Plains area, acquired horses from southern tribes, and developed a nomadic Plains culture, largely dependent on the buffalo. Their only cultivated crop was tobacco, grown for ceremonial purposes. With the early coming of the white man, the Blackfoot gained wealth from the sale of beaver pelts, but the killing off of the buffalo and the near exhaustion of fur stocks brought them to near starvation. Presently the Blackfoot are mainly ranchers and farmers living on reservations in Montana and Alberta. They continue to a small degree the rich ceremonialism that earlier marked their religion; important rituals include the sun dance and the vision quest. In 1990 there were 38,000 Blackfoot in the United States and over 11,000 in Canada.

Bibliography

See J. C. Ewers, The Blackfeet: Raiders on the Northwestern Plains (1958, repr. 1967); H. A. Dempsey, Crowfoot, Chief of the Blackfeet (1972); M. McFee, Modern Blackfeet (1972); B. Nettl, Blackfoot Musical Thought (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
This sacred place for the Blackfoot people is now officially recognized as a cultural landscape of global significance.
With more than 125 years of combined experience, plus a 15+ year working relationship between ACT and Blackfoot, customers can expect a seamless and time-saving experience when connecting last-mile locations.
Cowdry and Crop Eared Wolf met in 1885, soon after Cowdry settled in Fort MacLeod, which was originally within the Blackfoot plains.
When two Blackfoot elders visited the Pitt Rivers Museum in 2003 for another purpose and saw the shirts, they immediately began to consider how to bring them home.
"These bundles are shared among the whole confederacy and these buffalo coming back to the Blackfeet in Montana, they're part of the Blackfoot confederacy," said Fox, who noted that members from the Piikani, Siksika, and Blackfeet participated in the ceremony.
Archaeologists Gerald and Joy Oetelaar have argued that the Blackfoot (Niitsitapi) world was made up of "focal points of spiritual power" requiring the observance of ritual and storytelling to maintain relationships between humans and the otherworldly figures that gave balance and life to the Niitsitapi homeland.
"The future health and prosperity of Montanans depend on access to high-quality, cost-effective education and technology," said Bill Squires, chief executive officer of Blackfoot. "We are proud to support the expansion of higher education in Montana through this donation to Missoula College."
That deal included also a minority stake in fibre transport and services business Syringa Networks LLC, Blackfoot said.
By the early 20th century, quillworking and its attendant customs had all but disappeared among the Blackfoot. Jenny made these moccasins to wear herself on her wedding day.
Farr makes use of extensive archival research to reconstruct the story of Spopee, a Blackfoot Indian who spent 32 years in an insane asylum after shooting a white man in 1879, and in so doing examines the larger social and racial history of the last days before the confinement of the American Blackfeet to a reservation.
In the past few years, customers have told Blackfoot staff that there is a lack of adequate training in their communities on Internet-based services.
The tree had established their buffalo territory on the plains, and though there were still clashes with the Blackfoot Confederacy, a mutual need for less violence had Elders in both tribes advocating peace.