Blackfoot

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Related to Blackfoot Confederacy: Piegan, Blackfoot Indians

Blackfoot,

Native North Americans of the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They occupied in the early 19th cent. a large range of territory around the Upper Missouri (above the Yellowstone) and North Saskatchewan rivers W to the Rockies. Their name derives from the fact that they dyed their moccasins black. There were three main tribes—the Siksika, or Blackfoot proper; the Piegan; and the Kainah, or Blood. Although they did not form a unified political entity, they were united in defending their lands and in warfare. The Atsina (related to the Arapaho) and the Athapascan-speaking Sarsi were allied with the Blackfoot group. The Blackfoot were unremittingly hostile toward neighboring tribes and usually toward white men; intrusions upon Blackfoot lands were efficiently repelled. Prior to the mid-18th cent. they had moved into the N Great Plains area, acquired horses from southern tribes, and developed a nomadic Plains culture, largely dependent on the buffalo. Their only cultivated crop was tobacco, grown for ceremonial purposes. With the early coming of the white man, the Blackfoot gained wealth from the sale of beaver pelts, but the killing off of the buffalo and the near exhaustion of fur stocks brought them to near starvation. Presently the Blackfoot are mainly ranchers and farmers living on reservations in Montana and Alberta. They continue to a small degree the rich ceremonialism that earlier marked their religion; important rituals include the sun dance and the vision quest. In 1990 there were 38,000 Blackfoot in the United States and over 11,000 in Canada.

Bibliography

See J. C. Ewers, The Blackfeet: Raiders on the Northwestern Plains (1958, repr. 1967); H. A. Dempsey, Crowfoot, Chief of the Blackfeet (1972); M. McFee, Modern Blackfeet (1972); B. Nettl, Blackfoot Musical Thought (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Wildlife Conservation Society is working with the Blackfeet Nation and the Blackfoot Confederacy through the Iinnii initiative "gradually implementing a strategy to get bison home to these lands," said Keith Aune, director of bison program for North America.
The inscription reads "In the 1870s treaties between the Blackfoot Confederacy members and the Dominion Government established reserves; with settlement came the North West Mounted Police and the traders like Jerry Potts.
The three tribes of the Blackfoot confederacy -- the Piegan, the Blood and the Blackfoot -- do not eat the prairie turnip today, but Peacock says the plant's extensive roots in Blackfoot legend and language strongly suggest that it once ranked along with buffalo meat as a vital element in their diet.
There have been discussions with the other Blackfoot Confederacy members, he says, but at this point, the plan is to keep the BCEA to three members, operating more as a pilot project.
Mountain Horse and his section killed a few survivors of a German battery and marked the German artillery with the marks and designs of the Blackfoot Confederacy.
The trading post was a vital link between the First Nations people of the Blackfoot Confederacy and the European settlers.
Dignitaries from the Blackfoot Confederacy, provincial government, and United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization were in attendance.
The Blackfoot Confederacy encompasses southern Alberta from Cypress Hills west to the Rocky Mountains, south to Yellowstone National Park, north to Calgary and Red Deer south of the South Saskatchewan River, said Weasel Head.
1) Calf Child has been described as a "minor chief of the North Blackfoot or Siksikah or Blackfoot proper one of three tribes who are from the Blackfoot Confederacy (Peigan or Pikuni and Blood or Kainai being the others).
The Blackfoot confederacy, which includes the Bloods, Blackfoot, and Peigans, were a polygamous people.
A guided walk into the Oldman River Valley is a way to learn the history and traditional way of life of the Peigan people, members of the Blackfoot Confederacy.
In this transition, the university maintains partnerships with the Blackfoot Confederacy, Red Crow Community College, Blood Tribe Department of Health, Aakom-Kiyi Health Services at the Piikani Nation, and Siksika Health Services.