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musical instrument related to the lutelute,
musical instrument that has a half-pear-shaped body, a fretted neck, and a variable number of strings, which are plucked with the fingers. The long lute, with its neck much longer than its body, seems to have been older than the short lute, existing very early in the
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, modern guitars normally having six strings that are plucked with the fingers or strummed with a pick. Earlier versions had pairs of strings like the lute. The guitar usually has a flat back, sides that curve inward to form a waist, and a fretted neck. Other forms of the guitar include the 12-stringed guitar; the steel guitar, played with a metal bar to produce a sliding tone; the electric guitar; and the 4-stringed bass guitar, which, like the electric guitar, is a fixture of rock musicrock music,
type of music originating in the United States in the mid-1950s and increasingly popular throughout much of the world. Origins of Rock

Essentially hybrid in origin, rock music includes elements of several black and white American music styles: black
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 and is electronically amplified.

The traditional classical, as opposed to electric guitar, appeared as early as the 12th cent. in Spain, the country with which it is particularly associated. It was very popular there in the 16th cent., when much music was written for it. The composer Fernando Sor (1778–1839) was a brilliant guitarist who wrote many important works for that instrument. In the late 19th cent. there was revived interest in the guitar, aroused largely by the playing of Francisco Tárrega (1852–1909), one of the greatest guitar players of all time. Andrés SegoviaSegovia, Andrés
, 1893–1987, Spanish guitarist. Segovia studied at the Granada Musical Institute. He is famous for his transcriptions of early contrapuntal music, which have shown the possibilities of the guitar as a concert instrument.
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 was one of the foremost contemporary classical guitarists; he did much to stimulate interest in the instrument and its repertory, especially in 16th-century music.


See H. Turnbull, The Guitar from the Renaissance to the Present (1974); J. Tyler, The Early Guitar (1980); T. Wheeler, American Guitars (1982).



a plucked stringed instrument. It consists of a body with a narrow waist and flat soundboards, the upper one with a circular sound hole in its center; a neck holding a fretted finger board; and a head with tuning pegs. Originally, gut strings were used, but later those made of metal and nylon gained acceptance.

A guitar with four courses of paired strings was well known in 13th-century Spain. In the 17th century, a guitar with five courses, known as the Spanish guitar, gained acceptance in Italy and other European countries and in America. In Europe the instrument became very popular in the middle of the 18th century. At this time the guitar with five courses of strings began to be replaced by one with six single strings, which was tuned by fourths and thirds. In Russia, and to some extent in Poland, a seven-stringed guitar tuned by thirds (known as the Russian guitar) gained currency. Guitars with more strings were also produced. (Bass strings were added.)

Used mainly to provide accompaniment for singing, the instrument is also employed in chamber groups and solo work. It has become a folk instrument in several countries. N. Paganini wrote for the guitar, as did several outstanding 20th-century composers, including M. de Falla and H. Villa-Lobos. Prominent foreign guitarists are M. Giuliani (Italy); F. Sor, F. Tarrega, and A. Segovia (Spain); and M. L. Anido (Argentina). A. O. Sikhra, M. T. Vysotskii, M. D. Sokolovskii, and A. M. Ivanov-Kramskoi are outstanding Russian guitarists. The solo concert performances of guitar virtuosos are very successful.

Special guitar instruments that appeared in the 20th century are the Hawaiian and orchestral, or jazz, guitars. The Hawaiian guitar is held flat in the lap, and the sound is produced through use of a special plectrum and by pressing the strings against the fingerboard with a metal bar. The orchestral, or jazz, guitar has f holes, as does a violin, and it is also played with a plectrum.


Ivanov, M. Russkaia semistrunnaia gitara. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Vol’man, B. Gitara v Rossii. Leningrad, 1961.
Vol’man, B. Gitara i gitaristy. Leningrad, 1968.
Buek, F. Die Gitarre und ihre Meister, 3rd ed. Berlin [1952].
Pujol, E. La guitarra y su historia. Buenos Aires [1932].
Powrozniak, J. Gitara od A do Z. [Kraków, 1966.]



Music a plucked stringed instrument originating in Spain, usually having six strings, a flat sounding board with a circular sound hole in the centre, a flat back, and a fretted fingerboard. Range: more than three octaves upwards from E on the first leger line below the bass staff
References in periodicals archive ?
Since teaming up wi t h Steve Jones several years ago, Emily has cont inuedto broaden the scope of her styles in song writing and performance and has also returned to her first instrument, the violin, as well as playing some fine blues guitar.
His close friend and renowned blues guitar player Eamonn McCormack had kept the piece of music in a box for the last 12 years before deciding to put it on his new album Kindred Spirits.
HE IS best known for playing tough guys on the big screen, but Hollywood star Steven Seagal was playing blues guitar on stage in Liverpool at the weekend.
A radio DJ searches idly through the remainder bins in a Parisian record shop, takes a disc home, hears the most extraordinary West African blues guitar, plays it on the radio and is deluged with requests for more, and so Andy Kershaw helped to bring Ali Farka Toure into our lives and we have been enriched ever since.
Emmylou Harris brings a rural twang to the breathtaking "Amazing Grace"; Taj Mahal shows off his spiky blues guitar on "Mbube," a.
He wants to head to Chicago and play blues guitar, but he knows the danger he'd face on the road; only in Loring is he safe from service, as Dan's uncle has paid off the draft board on his behalf.
Track One, "The Blue Handed Man", is spoken and sung to blues guitar, harmonica, and bongos.
One day I was walking down the street with my blues guitar when a man ran out of his house, put his hands around my neck, and said he didn't move to the suburbs to be around a nigger.
John, a taxi driver, said: "The last time either of us have seen Clapton was back in the sixties when he played blues guitar at the Marquee club in London, years before he made his name as a rock star with Cream.
Louis and Kansas City and New Orleans, some old-sounding licks wrapped in modern electronica, a little psychedelic blues guitar here and there--a real gumbo, Italian-style.
Pantoum for a Black Man on a Greyhound Bus" uses this form to invent a kind of new blues, much the way Hawaiian music's slide invigorated the blues guitar, as the poems narrator reveals: "He left fifteen years behind prison walls/Anne Sexton used to call her asylum a jail/ .