Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

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Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich

(yōhän` frē`drĭkh blo͞o`mənbäkh), 1752–1840, German naturalist and anthropologist. He introduced and developed the science of comparative anatomy in Germany. His De generis humani varietate nativa (1775; tr. On the Natural Varieties of Mankind, 1865, repr. 1969) marked the beginnings of physical anthropology and described the five divisions of mankind which have been the basis of all subsequent racial classifications. Blumenbach's analysis of an extensive skull collection, published as Collectio craniorum diversarum gentium (1790–1828), established craniometric study. English translations of his works include The Anthropological Treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1865, repr. 1969).

Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich


Born May 11, 1752, in Gotha; died Jan. 1, 1840, in Göttingen. German anatomist, zoologist, and anthropologist; professor at Göttingen University (from 1778).

Blumenbach was one of the founders of modern anthropology and initiator of craniology, the study of human and animal skulls. He described five races of modern man and noted the existence of mixed races. He was the first to raise the question of the monophyletic origin of human races—that is, he regarded them as varieties of a single human species formed by climatic factors. He opposed the doctrine of preformation. In his attempts to explain the life processes and development of organisms he defended the vitalistic view, admitting the existence of an unknowable “formative striving.”


De generis humani varietate nativa, 2nd ed. Göttingen, 1781.
Über den Bildungstrieb. Gottingen, 1791.
Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie, 3rd ed. Göttingen, 1824.
In Russian translation:
Rukovodstvopo estestvennoi istorii, parts 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1797.
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In the first three chapters, Weatherby presents the metaphysical issues related to organs and the emergence of life through a compelling discussion of the work of Leibniz, Blumenbach, Kant, and Herder.
Para comprender esto se puede recurrir a Johannes Friedrich Blumenbach, uno de los principales monogenistas de la epoca, cuyos monumentales estudios raciales pueden ser un claro ejemplo sobre la concepcion diferenciada entre criollos y europeos desde una logica cientifica.
Rather than imitating the sciences, Herder and after him many other writers, philosophers, and scientists of his time--such as Goethe, Alexander von Humboldt, Lorenz Oken, Novalis, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, and Carl Gustav Carus--assumed that nature is an organic totality with an inner purpose or life force and attempted to integrate scientific knowledge into a universal human ethics.
With the famous anatomist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach as his mentor and close friend, he dedicated all his time and energy to studying medicine.
AM LC M Allen, 1890) Sylvilagus floridanus yucatanicus (Miller, 1899) Orden Soricomorpha Gregory, 1810 Familia Soricidae Fischer von Waldheim, 1817 Subfamilia Soricinae Fischer von Waldheim, 1817 Cryptotis mayensis (Merriam, MA Pr LC P 1901) Orden Chiroptera Blumenbach, 1779 Familia Emballonuridae Gervais.
Paul Hunter notes that these "German physiologists" also included, among others, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach.
Blumenbach y debe ser entendido como algo distinto de los propios materiales constituyentes del organismo.
Several researchers, including Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, a German physician, who have avidly studied human skulls from around the globe, "share Buffon's view that the human species was truly unitary, while also agreeing with him that species could change internally" (p.
Blumenbach, Arthur Joseph de Gobineau, Josiah Nott, and Samuel Morton Smith, among others, along with the American and British Schools of Anthropology (Painter, 2010).
Earlier anthropologists, and notably Johann Blumenbach, were agreed that mankind consisted of a number of separate "families", of which Blumenbach counted five.
From the mid-1770s, the unstable varieties of Linnaeus's early human taxonomy had been rebadged as races by Kant and Blumenbach.
Painter's research is so finely tuned as to show that in 1775 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach applied the word "Caucasian" in his dissertation, in Latin, concerning the varieties of mankind--precisely the year in which the U.