Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

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Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich

(yōhän` frē`drĭkh blo͞o`mənbäkh), 1752–1840, German naturalist and anthropologist. He introduced and developed the science of comparative anatomy in Germany. His De generis humani varietate nativa (1775; tr. On the Natural Varieties of Mankind, 1865, repr. 1969) marked the beginnings of physical anthropology and described the five divisions of mankind which have been the basis of all subsequent racial classifications. Blumenbach's analysis of an extensive skull collection, published as Collectio craniorum diversarum gentium (1790–1828), established craniometric study. English translations of his works include The Anthropological Treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1865, repr. 1969).

Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich

 

Born May 11, 1752, in Gotha; died Jan. 1, 1840, in Göttingen. German anatomist, zoologist, and anthropologist; professor at Göttingen University (from 1778).

Blumenbach was one of the founders of modern anthropology and initiator of craniology, the study of human and animal skulls. He described five races of modern man and noted the existence of mixed races. He was the first to raise the question of the monophyletic origin of human races—that is, he regarded them as varieties of a single human species formed by climatic factors. He opposed the doctrine of preformation. In his attempts to explain the life processes and development of organisms he defended the vitalistic view, admitting the existence of an unknowable “formative striving.”

WORKS

De generis humani varietate nativa, 2nd ed. Göttingen, 1781.
Über den Bildungstrieb. Gottingen, 1791.
Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie, 3rd ed. Göttingen, 1824.
In Russian translation:
Rukovodstvopo estestvennoi istorii, parts 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1797.
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Ananke, while spinning the threads of time, wanted that Johann Blumenbach (1752-1840) made an exact but opposite turn as the one previously made by Haller.
Organology, as Weatherby argues, is a "metaphysical approach to concrete scientific and political topics," an approach that tells the "intertwining histories of nature-human cognition as a single theory." In the first three chapters, Weatherby presents the metaphysical issues related to organs and the emergence of life through a compelling discussion of the work of Leibniz, Blumenbach, Kant, and Herder.
Para comprender esto se puede recurrir a Johannes Friedrich Blumenbach, uno de los principales monogenistas de la epoca, cuyos monumentales estudios raciales pueden ser un claro ejemplo sobre la concepcion diferenciada entre criollos y europeos desde una logica cientifica.
(9) Although Haefkens does not mention his source, he bases his general observations of race on Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's 1779 craniometric research.
Ahora bien, el propio Kant, en otros pasajes de la Critica de la facultad de juzgar, llama a los organismos con toda naturalidad seres vivos, y en su discusion con el biologo Blumenbach lo felicitara precisamente por su comprension de la vida en oposicion a la materia inerte (11).
(The editors offer the example of "a race of ginger.") They then move to thinking of more contemporary uses of the term that come from the eighteenth century and Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's anthropological work that formulated the racial categories we most often think of today.
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Mammalia, Chiroptera Blumenbach, 1779: New locality records, filling gaps, and geographic distribution maps from Northern Argentina.
For Georges-Louis LeClerc de Buffon, johann Blumenbach and others, the traits they observed and were the basis for their classification were not original or eternal, but only superficial responses to climate.
While the association of race based exclusively on physical features in the United States was largely a consequence of the nineteenth century scholarship of Johann Blumenbach and Georges Cuvier, the links between race and crime was first elaborated by Cesare Lombroso (1876).
The second refers to Whewell, Mill, Comte, Spencer, Dilthey, Schopenhauer, Darwin, Maxwell, Lagrange, Faraday, Mendel, Lyell, Hegel, Schelling, Lamarck, Burdach, Treviranus, Blumenbach, Girtanner, Meckel and many others in the space of thirty.
We talked about privilege, colonial inscriptions, the white masculinist underbelly of modernity in the east, and you said: "to assert oneself as a white man is to be like Kant, Blumenbach, the Imperialists, to be like Bush and to wilfully ignore all the great and often contradictory diversities of the many peoples who constitute this so called race; and the suppressed and silenced polemics of these dispossessed peoples.