For example, Cole, Davidson, and Gervais (2013) found that increased body surveillance was associated with increased body shame
in a sample of undergraduate men (McKinley & Hyde, 1996).
For example, Asian and Hispanic women have body dissatisfaction and body shame
due to their failure to achieve Western ideals of beauty and thinness (Gil-Kashiwabara, 2002; Mok, 1998).
As predicted, higher levels of body surveillance and body shame
(OBC factors) were correlated with higher levels of both masculine body image distress and drive for muscularity (see Table 2).
These proposed linkages of BMI and weight discrepancy are supported by studies finding that eating disorder symptomatology is mediated by body shame
in women (Boisvert, 2006; Fredrickson et al.
Self-esteem, however, was negatively related to body shame
and to appearance dissatisfaction.
Furthermore, they found body shame
to be related to lower body esteem, higher levels of surveillance, and restricted eating and disordered eating in young women.
The theory proposes that cultural constructions of the female body, including expectations of physical and sexual appeal, lead to a myriad of negative experiences for women, including constant monitoring of their appearance, body shame
, negative body esteem, and restricted eating and eating problems (McKinley, 1998, 1999; McKinley & Hyde, 1996).
sic)" She continued: "I'm so f***ing sick of people thinking it's ok to be mean or body shame
The Body shame
and Surveillance subscales from the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBC) (McKinley & Hyde, 1996) measure participants' feelings of Body shame
and Body surveillance (viewing the body as an outside observer).
Over time, those women who join the group also show higher levels of body shame
You take pictures and people just body shame
you," Kardashian said during Sunday's episode of the family's eponymous E
She wrote on her Instagram account: "I've had a weekend full of abuse on Instagram and I'm not one to take things lying down "To criticise me, judge me and body shame
me over a couple of bad pictures that I happen to have taken in this outfit by incessant photographers who at times want nothing more than an unflattering photograph of someone is petty, childish and disrespectful.