Hamilton not only demonstrates the existence of people who self-identified as heretics in the Languedoc, but even shows highly suggestive evidence from the Premonstratensian abbot Eberwin of Steinfeld of links between French heretics and the well-attested Byzantine heretical group known as the Bogomils
. Some contributors, including Julien Thery-Astruc, take moderate positions stemming from Michel Foucault's "perverse implantation" theory.
Anna's account of her father's battle against heresy, particularly those of the Manichaeans and the Bogomils
, reveals a continuity between the fourth and the twelfth centuries regarding the theology behind imperial rule.
The Bosnian Church was heretical from the point of view of the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church, and her believers are named differently by different sources such as: patarenes, bogomils
, baboons, manicheans etc.
Tim Miller's superb introduction brought several previously unknown historical intentional communities to my notice, including the Bogomils
, Waldensians, Adamites, Qarmathians, and Assassins.
In the centuries to follow, Christian civilization faced many challenges--barbarian invasions, socioeconomic collapse, schisms, the rise of Islam, and periodic waves of heresy like the Paulicians and the Bogomils
, but never again was it to suffer an existential threat.
Significantly, this volume has the least to say about heretics and dissidents of any stripe, with even the Bogomils
and other Dualists receiving short shrift.
As a result, Orchard and Graves uncritically interchanged "Baptists" with a host of disparate dissenting groups including Montanists, Novationists, Paulicians, Bogomils
, Albigensians, Waldensians, Lollards, Hussites, and Anabaptists.
Finally, in the pre-Constantine period, a bridge between Gnosticism and such later movements as the Bogomils
and Albigensians, there was Manicheanism, one of the last Eastern movements to permeate the West.
The medieval dualists (Paulicians, Bogomils
, Cathars) receive very little treatment, and the whole vita apostolica movement of the twelfth century is largely omitted.
His interest in Bogomils
and Cathars (see "Bogumil" and "Albi, A Day Trip" in High West Rendezvous) suggests a political gnosticism that posits freedom in the form of the negative image of what is.
It was not merely an import from the Balkan Bogomils
, but an expression of turn-of-the-millennium Catholic practice of religion, according to Professor Anne Brenon of Montpellier.