Bohemond I

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Bohemond I

(bō`həmŏnd), c.1056–1111, prince of Antioch (1099–1111), a leader in the First Crusade (see CrusadesCrusades
, series of wars undertaken by European Christians between the 11th and 14th cent. to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. First Crusade

In the 7th cent., Jerusalem was taken by the caliph Umar.
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); elder son of Robert GuiscardRobert Guiscard
, c.1015–1085, Norman conqueror of S Italy, a son of Tancred de Hauteville (see Normans). Robert joined (c.1046) his brothers in S Italy and fought with them to expel the Byzantines.
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. With his father he fought (1081–85) against the Byzantine emperor Alexius IAlexius I
(Alexius Comnenus) , 1048–1118, Byzantine emperor (1081–1118). Under the successors of his uncle, Isaac I, the empire had fallen prey to anarchy and foreign invasions.
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. When his father's duchy of Apulia passed to his younger brother Roger, Bohemond made war against him and obtained S Apulia as a fief. In 1096 he joined the Crusaders. He swore the oath of fealty to Alexius at Constantinople (1097) and in 1098 at the siege of AntiochAntioch
or Antakya
, city (1990 pop. 124,443), capital of Hatay prov., S Turkey, on the Orontes (Asi) River, near the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of Mt. Silpius. Antioch is the trade center for a region where grains, cotton, grapes, olives, and vegetables are grown.
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 devised the stratagem by which the city was captured. He subsequently made himself prince of Antioch, in defiance of his oath to Alexius, and over the opposition of Raymond IV of Toulouse, leader of the crusade. Captured by Muslims (1100), he was released in 1103. Returning to Europe, he married the daughter of Philip I of France and secured support for a crusade against Alexius, by whom he was defeated (1108) and as a result was forced to reaffirm his vassalage. In 1109 he was defeated by the Muslims at Harran. He did not return to Antioch, and his relative Tancred was regent for him.


See biography by R. B. Yewdale (1924, repr. 1971).

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