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A famous creator of songs during the 11th and early 12th centuries; he composed songs of praise in honor of the Russian princes. He is mentioned for the first time in the Tale of Igor’s Campaign, where he is called “the nightingale of olden times” and a “prophetic” singer. In The Don Region (beginning of the 15th century) he is called “the greatest singer in Kiev.” There is information about the purchase of “Boian’s land” in a 12th-century inscription discovered in the Kievan Cathedral of Sophia. The name “Boian” has become an appellation used to designate any poet.
REFERENCESOrlov, A. S. Slovo o polku Igoreve, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1946.
Likhachev, D. S. Slovo o polku Igoreve: Istoriko-literaturnyiocherk, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1955.
Vysotskii, S. A. “Nadpis’ o Boianovoi zemle v Sofli kievskoi.” Istoriia SSSR, 1964, no. 3.
V. V. KUSKOV
a neolithic culture, which developed on the territory of modern Rumania and Bulgaria (fourth millennium B.C.). It was named after settlements on Lake Boian in Rumania. The Boian culture underwent a long period of development, during which its territory, dwellings, earthenware, and work implements changed. Settlements along the river shores in dugout-dwellings were replaced by settlements in high places in above-ground dwellings. Characteristic of Boian is black and gray glazed earthenware with carved ornamentation often inlaid with a white paste. In later stages, white and graphite drawings appeared. Interesting weapons are their last-shaped stone axes. The population’s basic occupations were agriculture, cattle-raising, hunting, and fishing. The Boian culture played an important role in the formation of the Aeneolithic culture of Gumelnita.
REFERENCESPassek, T. S. “Novye otkrytiia na territorii SSSR i voprosy pozdneneoliticheskikh kul’tur Dunaisko-Dnestrovskogo mezhdurech’ia.” Sovetskaia arkheologiia, 1958, no. 1.
Christescu, V. “Les stations préhistoriques du Lac de Boian.” In the collection Dacia, [vol.] 2.
Bucharest, 1925. Comsa, E. “Quelques données relatives à la périodisation et à 1’évolution de la civilisation de Boian.” In the collection Dacia, new series, [vol.] 1. Bucharest, 1957.
V. S. TITOV