Born Oct. 18 (30), 1835, in Podgórze, near Daugavpils, in present-day Latvia; died Feb. 1, 1935, in Warsaw. Polish public figure and historian.
Limanowski studied at the Universities of Moscow and Dor-pat. In 1861 he was exiled to Archangel’sk for organizing an antigovernment demonstration in Vilnius; he was later transferred to Voronezh Province, where he remained until 1868. In late 1870 he settled in L’vov, where he graduated from the university. While in Galicia, he made contact with the first socialist circles there. After 1878 he lived abroad, for the most part in Geneva, where he joined the Polish socialist group Równość (Equality). In 1881 he founded the organization Lud Polski (The Polish People), out of which grew the social-patriotic current in the Polish workers’ movement. He was one of the ideologists, founders (1892), and leaders of the Polish Socialist Party. In 1907 he returned to Poland. From 1922 to 1935 he was a member of the Polish Senate. Limanowski was one of the first historians to study the 19th-century Polish national-liberation movement.
WORKSHistoria ruchu spotecznego w XIX stuleciu. L’vov, 1890.
Historia demokracji polskiej w epoce porozbiorowej, parts 1–2, 4th ed. Warsaw, 1957.
Stanisław Worcell [2nd ed.] Warsaw, 1948.
Historia powstania narodu polskiego 1863 i 1864 r., 2nd ed. L’vov, 1909.
Historia ruchu rewolucyjnego w Polsce w 1846 r. Kraków-New York, 1913.
Pamiętniki, vols. 1–3. Warsaw, 1957–61.
I. S. MILLER