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Related to Bombardment: heavy bombardment


The use of induction heating to heat electrodes of electron tubes to drive out gases during evacuation.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the attack on troops, equipment, and other military and industrial objectives, as well as on population centers, with artillery fire and airplane bombs.

In international law bombardment is regulated by a number of international agreements (primarily The Hague Conventions of 1899, 1907, and 1954). Present-day international law establishes that belligerent countries do not have an unlimited right in the choice of the means of inflicting harm on the enemy. Thus, bombardment of undefended ports, cities, settlements, or structures is forbidden. In instances in which there are military depots or installations in ports or populated areas, the commander of the attacking troops or naval forces can demand that the local authorities destroy the above-mentioned facilities and, in the event his demand is not carried out, subject them to bombardment, taking measures to limit the deleterious consequences for the populated area, especially with regard to historical monuments, churches, buildings used for science, the arts, and philanthropy, hospitals, and places where the sick and wounded are gathered. The Hague Convention of 1954 unconditionally banned the bombardment of cultural treasures, which must be provided with special visible markings and be accessible to international control.

In the system of rules of international law pertaining to the laws and customs of war, an important place belongs to provisions that forbid the use of weapons of mass destruction; it is unconditionally forbidden in bombing to use asphyxiating, poisonous, or other gases or liquids, as well as bacteriological means (the Geneva Protocol of 1925). On Nov. 24,1961, the UN General Assembly adopted a special declaration in which the use of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons was proclaimed contradictory to the spirit, letter, and goals of the UN Charter and a crime against humanity.

The conduct of wars in the period of imperialism abounds with examples of the most flagrant violations of the rules of international law, including provisions pertaining to bombing. For example, during World War I the Germans bombarded Paris with heavy fortress guns and from the air. During World War II the troops of fascist Germany carried out devastating bombardment against undefended cities and populated areas of the USSR and Poland (for example, the bombardment of Warsaw in 1939), fired on London with V-l and V-2 missiles, bombarded Coventry, England, in 1940, and so forth.

An example of a flagrant violation of international rules is the protracted shellings by heavy guns and aerial bombardment of peaceful cities and hamlets during the war in Vietnam by the US armed forces.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mark Simmons, the council's museums manager, said: "This is the best interpretation of the bombardment and Hartlepool's role in the wider war which the museum has ever had.
| The Commemoration Society 18th Battalion Durham Light Infantry, above left, and |Gerry Raffell, 66, left, standing at the memorial as Hartlepool marks the100th anniversary of the December 16 1914 German bombardment
At least 48 people including rebel fighters have been killed in Syrian government air bombardments around a town in the central province of Homs, a monitoring group said on Wednesday, reports Reuters.
"Although the Moon is located far from Vesta, which is in the main asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, they seem to share some of the same bombardment history," Pendleton added.
According to reports, the Afghan and American troops attacked on hideouts of Mullah Shapoor and after a clash, the air forces bombardment the area.
Divided into three parts, the book explores the many varied reasons for information bombardment, analyzes its implications, and offers some guidance for combating it.
Reconstructions of the early solar system peg the bombardment as beginning about 4.1 billion years ago, triggered by a cataclysmic rearrangement of the outer planets.
Traumatised residents managed to leave their homes in Homs yesterday after Syrian forces eased a week-long bombardment that has killed hundreds and caused a humanitarian crisis.
Summary: Syrian forces have resumed their heavy bombardment of the city of Homs.
Syria: Syrian forces launched a fresh bombardment of powderkeg city Homs at dawn on Monday, causing an unknown number of casualties, activists and correspondents said.
Cairo - PNN - This morning Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, currently in Cairo, asked the Arab League to hold a meeting concerning recent Israeli bombardment, state media WAFA reports.
NNA - 22/2/2011 Libyan Leader Mouammar Gaddafi threatened protestors who are calling for his stepping down of a sweeping response similar to that of Russian Army' s bombardment of Parliament in Moscow during the transitional period of the disintegration of Soviet Union and the establishment of the State of Russia, China' s smashing of "Atian Anmine" Movement in Beijing as well as US bombardment of Fallujah in Iraq.