Bombardment


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Related to Bombardment: heavy bombardment

bombardment

[bäm′bärd·mənt]
(electronics)
The use of induction heating to heat electrodes of electron tubes to drive out gases during evacuation.

Bombardment

 

the attack on troops, equipment, and other military and industrial objectives, as well as on population centers, with artillery fire and airplane bombs.

In international law bombardment is regulated by a number of international agreements (primarily The Hague Conventions of 1899, 1907, and 1954). Present-day international law establishes that belligerent countries do not have an unlimited right in the choice of the means of inflicting harm on the enemy. Thus, bombardment of undefended ports, cities, settlements, or structures is forbidden. In instances in which there are military depots or installations in ports or populated areas, the commander of the attacking troops or naval forces can demand that the local authorities destroy the above-mentioned facilities and, in the event his demand is not carried out, subject them to bombardment, taking measures to limit the deleterious consequences for the populated area, especially with regard to historical monuments, churches, buildings used for science, the arts, and philanthropy, hospitals, and places where the sick and wounded are gathered. The Hague Convention of 1954 unconditionally banned the bombardment of cultural treasures, which must be provided with special visible markings and be accessible to international control.

In the system of rules of international law pertaining to the laws and customs of war, an important place belongs to provisions that forbid the use of weapons of mass destruction; it is unconditionally forbidden in bombing to use asphyxiating, poisonous, or other gases or liquids, as well as bacteriological means (the Geneva Protocol of 1925). On Nov. 24,1961, the UN General Assembly adopted a special declaration in which the use of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons was proclaimed contradictory to the spirit, letter, and goals of the UN Charter and a crime against humanity.

The conduct of wars in the period of imperialism abounds with examples of the most flagrant violations of the rules of international law, including provisions pertaining to bombing. For example, during World War I the Germans bombarded Paris with heavy fortress guns and from the air. During World War II the troops of fascist Germany carried out devastating bombardment against undefended cities and populated areas of the USSR and Poland (for example, the bombardment of Warsaw in 1939), fired on London with V-l and V-2 missiles, bombarded Coventry, England, in 1940, and so forth.

An example of a flagrant violation of international rules is the protracted shellings by heavy guns and aerial bombardment of peaceful cities and hamlets during the war in Vietnam by the US armed forces.

References in periodicals archive ?
Iran recently said it will only stop the bombardments if the Kurdistan Region Army or Iraqi Army expels PJAK and Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), and stations and controls the border with Iran.
Twenty-one of the 332d Fighter Group's P-51s turned back toward Ramitelli, leaving only thirty-six Tuskegee Airmen to escort the 5th Bombardment Wing.
French Strategic and Tactical Bombardment Forces of World War I is a dense, well-written, and well-researched book that should be on the shelves of serious World War I aviation scholars.
Other vendors of bombardment gene delivery systems include Taiwan-based BioWare Technology and Chinese company Ningbo Scientz Biotechnology.
The dirt and dust from the bombardment fills the streets and houses and the rain is black.
He was speaking after Israeli air strikes and tank bombardments left one Palestinian dead and 60 injured.
Vieques has received some belated attention from the left, after six decades of bombardment.
More and more, the leader's responsibility will be to help sort through and interpret what the information bombardment really means--what it means to the team and what it means to you and me.
Ironically, on the last two days of the bombardment the man who ordered the destruction in Iraq, William Jefferson Clinton, President of the United States, was impeached for perjury and obstruction of justice.
That kind of bombardment on Earth would cause a lot of trouble, says astronomer Imhoff.
forces established virtual unopposed air superiority, to the point where B-52s carried out their devastating bombardment campaign in daylight and at high altitude, the Air Force did not field even one B-1B attack--not one.
In the case of chlorobutyl and bromobutyl, the polymer degradation (chain scissioning) which occurs under electron bombardment, was also exploited for obtaining contrast.