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The use of induction heating to heat electrodes of electron tubes to drive out gases during evacuation.



the attack on troops, equipment, and other military and industrial objectives, as well as on population centers, with artillery fire and airplane bombs.

In international law bombardment is regulated by a number of international agreements (primarily The Hague Conventions of 1899, 1907, and 1954). Present-day international law establishes that belligerent countries do not have an unlimited right in the choice of the means of inflicting harm on the enemy. Thus, bombardment of undefended ports, cities, settlements, or structures is forbidden. In instances in which there are military depots or installations in ports or populated areas, the commander of the attacking troops or naval forces can demand that the local authorities destroy the above-mentioned facilities and, in the event his demand is not carried out, subject them to bombardment, taking measures to limit the deleterious consequences for the populated area, especially with regard to historical monuments, churches, buildings used for science, the arts, and philanthropy, hospitals, and places where the sick and wounded are gathered. The Hague Convention of 1954 unconditionally banned the bombardment of cultural treasures, which must be provided with special visible markings and be accessible to international control.

In the system of rules of international law pertaining to the laws and customs of war, an important place belongs to provisions that forbid the use of weapons of mass destruction; it is unconditionally forbidden in bombing to use asphyxiating, poisonous, or other gases or liquids, as well as bacteriological means (the Geneva Protocol of 1925). On Nov. 24,1961, the UN General Assembly adopted a special declaration in which the use of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons was proclaimed contradictory to the spirit, letter, and goals of the UN Charter and a crime against humanity.

The conduct of wars in the period of imperialism abounds with examples of the most flagrant violations of the rules of international law, including provisions pertaining to bombing. For example, during World War I the Germans bombarded Paris with heavy fortress guns and from the air. During World War II the troops of fascist Germany carried out devastating bombardment against undefended cities and populated areas of the USSR and Poland (for example, the bombardment of Warsaw in 1939), fired on London with V-l and V-2 missiles, bombarded Coventry, England, in 1940, and so forth.

An example of a flagrant violation of international rules is the protracted shellings by heavy guns and aerial bombardment of peaceful cities and hamlets during the war in Vietnam by the US armed forces.

References in classic literature ?
As we stood there, momentarily forgetful of all else than our new found happiness, the ferocity of the bombardment increased until scarce thirty seconds elapsed between the shells that rained about the palace.
The bombardment had ceased as suddenly as it had commenced.
The other members of the tribe now took up the bombardment, using such hard-shelled fruits and dead branches as came within their reach, until Sheeta, goaded to frenzy and snapping at the grass rope, finally succeeded in severing its strands.
On the other hand, many Turkmen civilians who fled from the heavy bombardments of Assad forces are being placed by the tents set by Turkey.
The monarchy's aerial bombardments have so far claimed the lives of at least 5,119 people, mostly women and children.
Over the past day there was one of the most intense bombardments of Ukrainian territory since the signing of the Minsk agreement," Ukraine's Security Council said in a statement, referring to the February peace deal.
Baquba / NINA / A security source said on Friday that 15 elements of the IS were killed and wounded in artillery bombardments targeted the IS gatherings northeast of Baquba, capital of Diyala province.
At least 48 people including rebel fighters have been killed in Syrian government air bombardments around a town in the central province of Homs, a monitoring group said on Wednesday, reports Reuters.
The GoS has recently agreed to open humanitarian corridors to relieve citizens of the Republic of South Sudan displaced by conflict in their country, and sent supplies to the victims of Israeli bombardments in Gaza," noted SDFG executive Director Dr.
Locals said that aerial operation was one of the heaviest bombardments in recent years in North Waziristan, which is considered the hub of al Qaeda affiliated militants after 2007 peace deal between government and North Waziristan militant Commander Hafiz Gul Bahadur.
We firmly condemn the pursuit of indiscriminate bombardments by the regime against the civilian population in Aleppo, as in the remainder of the country, and against the historic and cultural heritage," the official added.
Official's sister killed in army bombardment of Qaeda organization SALAHAL-DIN/ Aswat al-Iraq: Salahal-Din Provincial Council member disclosed today that his sister was killed and three wounded of his family, including a small child, due to bombardments to one of Qaeda bases south the province.