One coin has Pope Martin IV, the second is Pope Boniface IX
and is slightly bent, and the third is of Pope Gregory IX.
Such is the methodological error of placing too great an emphasis upon the repertory of a manuscript while ignoring scribal and physical contingencies, not to mention Francesca Manzaris important discovery--reported in Recercare, 22 (2010)--that the line drawings in this manuscript are close to those by illuminators working in the court of Pope Boniface IX
. On a slightly personal note, despite assertions to the contrary (p.
There have been nine popes who carried that name: from Bonifatius Primus (Boniface I) to Bonifatius Nonus (Boniface IX
), although the seventh one was antipope.
Among them were Popes Benedict XII, Urban VI (who granted indulgences for the feast of Mary's Nativity), Boniface IX
and Martin V.
After Clement VII and Urban VI died, the schism continued through their respective successors, Pope Boniface IX
(who became the 'Roman' pope in 1389) and Benedict XIII (the Avignon antipope who was crowned in 1394).
This gift allowed him to escalate from the lower levels of church life into the sacristies and antechambers of the pope, holding office in the Roman curia, including tenure as amanuensis to Pope Boniface IX
. Unlike Dostoevsky's idiot, Poggio's gifts transmuted an entire system of writing that would reflect, with each pen stroke, the opening of society to the intellectual inheritance of the deep past.
In 1045 AD, Pope Boniface IX
resigned in order to get married.
With key connections in London and Rome, Cook obtained a faculty from Pope Boniface IX
to build a chapel in honour of the three saints in 1396.
He characterized Pope Boniface IX
as a mercenary who thought only about money."
An adroit and crafty entrepreneur, a scribe, `albreviator litterarum aposticlarum' in the papal curia from 1387 until 1417, the Canon survived political upheaval (during the Great Schism) serving Popes and pseudopopes Urban IV, Boniface IX
, Alexander V, John XXIII and Martin V, always coming out on top.