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(11) Two parties which featured very prominently in the negotiations were the Ciskeian Government and the Government of Bophuthatswana. The former failed to win a single seat in the national assembly and the latter decided not to contest the elections, after its allies in the Freedom Alliance decided to contest the elections.
The highly emotional issues of the security forces and the reincorporation of the independent "homelands" (Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei) must also be resolved.
The coup d'etat in the Transkei came about because of widespread corruption by the puppet regime, and this was also a major factor in Bophuthatswana, highlighted by the dealings between president Lucas Mangope and the shadowy Russian-born Israeli businessman Shabtai Kalmanovitch.
The planning for the integration of the former statutory forces (the SADF, the TDF, the Venda Defence Force, the Bophuthatswana Defence Force and the Ciskei Defence Force) and the non-statutory forces (MK and APLA) was initiated by the Transitional Executive Council (TEC -- the multi-party body established to oversee the latter stages of South Africa's democratic transition) in November 1993.
Now that the "Homeland" of Bophuthatswana is to be reincorporated into South Africa, platinum-producing companies may have to renegotiate mineral agreements they had made with the deposed government of Lucas Mangope.
Certainly, there are reluctant participants within Codesa: Both Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi's Inkatha Freedom Party and Chief Lucas Mangope's Bophuthatswana government, for example, claim to be committed to negotiations but refused to sign the declaration.
It went something like this--working for the Bophuthatswana government service as a nature conservation officer, I had to either make do with government housing, of which little was available, or make my own plan for a roof over my head.
1986 1987 1988 1989 South African 133,965 128,513 120,008 108,957 Transkei 12,249 12,249 11,593 10,569 Ciskei 15,107 15,107 13,861 12,038 Bophuthatswana 103,897 117,553 119,806 113,992 All other areas 266,150 273,402 265,268 245,556 Total S.A.
In addition, the prospects for a successful transition to democracy in South Africa - despite the current wave of violence - seem brighter now than they did several months ago, particularly with the defused crisis over the future of the black "Homeland" of Bophuthatswana.
Lucas Mangope, the leader of Bophuthatswana, will certainly continue to outlaw the organization, and the Sebokeng massacre will not be the last word from the extreme right wing of the police.
Two of his past posts were Provincial Game Warden in charge of what is now Zimbabwe's Hwange National Park, one of Africa's biggest and most prestigious game reserves; and Director of the Bophuthatswana National Parks Board.
It is of course recognizable, especially in the likes of Bophuthatswana, but there was also much decay, with many a Native Authority a shadow of its past power of the colonial era.