Bordetella

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Bordetella

A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are coccobacilli and obligate aerobes, and fail to ferment carbohydrates. These bacteria are respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica share greater than 90% of their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences and would not warrant separate species designations except that the distinctions are useful for clinical purposes. Bordetella pertussis is an obligate human pathogen and is the causative agent of whooping cough (pertussis). Bordetella parapertussis causes a milder form of disease in humans and also causes respiratory infections in sheep. Bordetella bronchiseptica has the broadest host range, causing disease in many mammalian species, but kennel cough in dogs and atrophic rhinitis, in which infected piglets develop deformed nasal passages, have the biggest economic impact. Bordetella avium is more distantly related to the other species. A pathogen of birds, it is of major economic importance to the poultry industry.

Infection by all four species is characterized by bacterial adherence to the ciliated cells that line the windpipe (trachea), B. pertussis releases massive amounts of peptidoglycan, causing an exaggerated immune response that is ultimately deleterious, resulting in self-induced death of the ciliated cells. Bordetella also produces protein toxins. The best-characterized is pertussis toxin, made only by B. pertussis. This toxin interferes with the mechanisms used by host cells to communicate with one another.

Bordetella pertussis is spread by coughing and has no environmental reservoir other than infected humans. Culturing the organism is difficult. Erythromycin is the antibiotic used most frequently to treat whooping cough. Unfortunately, antibiotic treatment improves the patient's condition only if given early, when the disease is most difficult to diagnose, and does not help after whooping has begun. This is consistent with the concept that the early symptoms of the disease result from bacterial damage to the respiratory tract and the later symptoms are due to toxins released by the bacteria. Antibiotics can eradicate the microorganisms but cannot reverse the effects of toxins, which can cause damage far from the site of bacterial growth.

Vaccines have been developed for whooping cough and kennel cough. Multicomponent pertussis vaccines consisting of inactivated pertussis toxin and various combinations of filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbriae are now replacing the older whole-cell vaccines consisting of killed bacteria, which were suspected but not proven to cause rare but serious side effects. Vaccination programs have greatly reduced the incidence of whooping cough in affluent nations, but worldwide nearly half a million deaths occur each year, most of which are vaccine-preventable. See Antibiotic, Medical bacteriology

Bordetella

[‚bȯr·də′tel·ə]
(microbiology)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria of uncertain affiliation; minute coccobacilli, parasitic and pathogenic in the respiratory tract of mammals.
References in periodicals archive ?
Genomic dissection of Australian Bordetella pertussis isolates from the 2008-2012 epidemic.
Tilstra et al., "Immunoproteomic profiling of bordetella pertussis outer membrane vesicle vaccine reveals broad and balanced humoral immunogenicity," Journal of Proteome Research, vol.
Callahan, "Clinical diagnosis of bordetella Pertussis infection: a systematic review," The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, vol.
Bacterial (or fungi) or FilmArray RP Cases Mycoplasma pneumoniae detection (--: not detected) Yeast -- 6 Negative Mycoplasma pneumoniae 6 Staphylococcus aureus -- 4 Acinetobacter baumannii -- 3 Enterobacter aerogenes -- 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae -- 2 Pseudomonas aeruginosa -- 2 Escherichia coli Bordetella pertussis 1 Escherichia coli -- 1 Klebsiella ornithinolytica -- 1 Negative Bordetella pertussis 1 Staphylococcus haemolyticus -- 1
The use of TaqMan PCR assay for detection of Bordetella pertussis infection clinical specimens.
Activity of new macrolides against Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis.
Bordetella pertussis is a strict human pathogen causing severe contagious respiratory infection, whooping cough or pertussis (1) .
Gottshall, "Sensitization to ragweed pollen in Bordetella pertussis infected or vaccine injected mice," Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.
Bordetella pertussis causa la tos ferina o tos convulsiva, enfermedad infecciosa inmunoprevenible, que ha venido en aumento en las dos ultimas decadas, en los paises pobres originando hasta 300,000 fallecidos por ano (1).
Of 560 not-recently-immunized household contacts of 164 hospitalized infants who were tested for Bordetella pertussis infection, 53% were infected and 14% had no symptoms.
Pertussis or whooping cough is an acute infection of the respiratory tract caused by Bordetella Pertussis. Whooping cough is caused by the bacterium Bordetella Pertussis is very small Gram_negative aerobic coccobacillus that appear singly or in pairs Bordetella is placed among the Gram-Negative aerobic rods and cocci called coccobacillus (Bloom et al., 2003).
Regan-Lowe Semisolid Transport Medium Regan-Lowe is a semisolid tranposrt medium designed specifically for the transport of specimen suspected of containing Bordetella pertussis and B.