Iur’ev, Boris Nikolaevich
Born Oct. 29 (Nov. 10), 1889, in Smolensk; died Mar. 14, 1957, in Moscow. Russian scientist in the field of aerodynamics. Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1943). Lieutenant general in the technical engineering branch (1944). A student of N. E. Zhukovskii.
After graduating from the Moscow Higher Technical School in 1919, Iur’ev taught there until 1929, becoming a professor in 1925. He helped organize the Central Aerodynamic and Hydro-dynamic Institute, the N. E. Zhukovskii Air Force Engineering Academy (where he taught from 1920 to 1949), and the S. Ord-zhonikidze Aviation Institute in Moscow (where he taught from 1930 to 1940). From 1944 to 1950 he was chairman of the Commission on the History of Technology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Beginning in 1950, he was head of the laboratory of applied aerodynamics at the Institute of Mechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
In 1910–11, Iur’ev, together with G. Kh. Sabinin, developed a theory of the propeller, in which the flow produced by the propeller was associated for the first time with the blade geometry; he derived formulas for calculating relative velocities near a propeller blade in the case of a finite number of blades, refining Zhukovskii’s vortex theory of a propeller. He also worked on the inductive drag of wings. In 1912, Iur’ev constructed a full-scale model of a single-rotor helicopter, which was displayed in Moscow at the Second International Exhibition on Aeronautics and won a gold medal. The development of the Soviet helicopter industry dates to 1930, when Iur’ev built the first experimental helicopter, the TsAGI-EA-1. In 1941, Iur’ev and I. P. Bratukhin built the Omega two-rotor helicopter, which was first demonstrated at the Tushino air show in 1946.
Iur’ev received the State Prize of the USSR (1943, 1946). He was also awarded two orders of Lenin, two other orders, and various medals.