After learning the game age four, Karpov joined Mikhail Botvinnik's legendary chess school aged 12, and by 15 was tied with Boris Spassky
as the youngest ever Soviet grandmaster.
Fischer first came to prominence as a teenager, becoming US champion at 14, but he shot to fame in 1972 when he beat Boris Spassky
to the title of chess World Champion in what was dubbed "the match of the century".
Amid the stalemate in the Japanese bureaucracy, what finally broke the ice was Iceland's decision to give Fischer full citizenship on March 22, reflecting Iceland's gratitude to Fischer for boosting their nation to global prominence with his 1972 historic chess showdown against longtime rival Boris Spassky
of the former Soviet Union in Reykjavik during the Cold War.
In 1992, Fischer--in defiance of a UN embargo, and after spitting on a letter of warning from the State Department--played a rematch against his storied Russian chess opponent, world champion Boris Spassky
The arms race, the space race, and the Olympic games are common examples, and even the 1972 world championship chess match between Boris Spassky
and Bobby Fischer seemed less about chess and more about whether "our guy" could beat "their guy." Kotkin omits references to these competitions, however, because the competition that mattered most fundamentally was societal: Which country (or system) could produce a society of abundance and justice?
When one watched champion chess players such as Boris Spassky
and Bobby Fischer considering their next moves in a chess match, one observed humans deep in thought.
Chess player Boris Spassky
and actress Vanessa Redgrave (Jan 30, 1937).
And it is interesting to note in this connection that ex-World Champion Boris Spassky
singled out a game he lost as the finest of his entire career.
Fischer and the defending world chess champion, Boris Spassky
of the U.S.S.R., argued for months about details leading up to the showdown.
At which game was Boris Spassky
world champion 1969-72?
The Closed System against the Sicilian, adopted and strongly recommended by the late world champion Vassily Smyslov in the 50s and 60s, but only former world champion Boris Spassky
succeeded in making it popular.