Borneo


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.

Borneo

(bôr`nēō'), island (1990 pop. 9,102,906), c.287,000 sq mi (743,330 sq km), largest of the Malay Archipelago and third largest island in the world, SW of the Philippines and N of Java. Indonesian Borneo (called Kalimantan by the Indonesians and divided into several provinces) covers over 70% of the total area, and the Malaysian states of SabahSabah
, state (1991 pop. 1,736,902), 28,417 sq mi (73,600 sq km), Malaysia, N Borneo, on the South China and Sulu seas. It is bordered on the south by Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). The capital is Kota Kinabalu; other significant towns are Sandakan and Victoria.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and SarawakSarawak
, state (1991 pop. 1,648,217), 48,342 sq mi (125,206 sq km), Malaysia, in NW Borneo and on the South China Sea. It is bordered on the NE by the states of Brunei and Sabah and on the S and W by Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo).
..... Click the link for more information.
 and the sultanate of BruneiBrunei
or Brunei Darussalam
, officially State of Brunei Darussalam, sultanate (2005 est. pop. 372,400), 2,226 sq mi (5,765 sq km), NW Borneo, on the South China Sea. Its two sections, separated by Brunei Bay, are surrounded by Sarawak, Malaysia.
..... Click the link for more information.
 stretch across the north coast.

Land and People

The island largely consists of dense jungle and mountains, reaching its highest point at Mt. Kinabalu (13,455 ft/4,101 m) in Sabah. Much of the terrain is virtually impassable, and large areas are unexplored. Many of the rivers are navigable to small craft, however, and provide access into the interior. The largest rivers are the Kapuas in the west and the Barito in the south. The coastal area is generally swampy and fringed with mangrove forests. Banjarmasin, Pontianak, Balikpapan, Tarakan, Kuching, Bandar Seri Begawan, and Sandakan are leading ports. The climate is tropical, i.e., hot and humid; annual rainfall averages more than 100 in. (254 cm), and there is a prolonged monsoon (generally from November to May). The fauna is roughly similar to that of Sumatra and includes the elephant, deer, orangutan, gibbon, Malay bear, and crocodile, and many varieties of snakes. Rhinoceroses, once numerous, have been extensively hunted and are now almost extinct.

The island is one of the most sparsely populated regions in the world. The two major ethnic groups are the DyaksDyak
or Dayak
, name applied to one of the groups of indigenous peoples of the island of Borneo, numbering about 2 million. The Dyaks have maintained their customs and mode of life largely uninfluenced by modern civilization.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and the coastal Malays. Kalimantan was also a center for Chinese settlement and has a number of immigrants resettled during the second half of the 20th cent. from overcrowded areas of Indonesia, particularly Madura.

Economy

Kalimantan contains Indonesia's greatest expanse of tropical rain forests, including valuable stands of camphor, sandalwood, and ironwood, and many palms. The thick jungle and myriad insects tend to discourage large-scale agriculture, but rice, sago, tobacco, millet, coconuts, pepper, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, and rubber are grown. In 1983, over 13,000 sq mi (20,917 sq km) of rain forest were destroyed by fire, causing enormous damage to the ecosystem, and immigration from other, heavily populated parts of Indonesia, combined with illegal logging, has resulted in increasing deforestation, threatening the orangutan, the pygmy elephant, and other species. Kalimantan contains some of Indonesia's most productive oil fields (discovered in 1888). Coal has been mined there for more than a century, and gold since earliest times. In 1995 one of the richest gold deposits in the world was discovered in NE Kalimantan. Other mineral resources include industrial diamonds, bauxite, and extensive reserves of low-grade iron ore, which are, however, little exploited.

History

Borneo was visited by the Portuguese in 1521, and shortly thereafter by the Spanish, who established trade relations with the island. The Dutch arrived in the early 1600s, and the English c.1665. Dutch influence was established on the west coast in the early 1800s and was gradually extended to the south and east. The British adventurer James BrookeBrooke, Sir James,
1803–68, rajah of Sarawak on Borneo, b. India, of English parents. After active service in Burma (1825–26), he retired (1830) from the army of the East India Company.
..... Click the link for more information.
 took the north edge of the island in the 1840s, and what is now Sabah was declared a British protectorate in 1882, Sarawak and Brunei in 1888. The final boundaries were defined in 1905. In World War II the island was held by the Japanese from 1942 to 1945. Dutch Borneo became part of the republic of Indonesia in 1950. The union of Sabah and Sarawak with Malaya in the Federation of MalaysiaMalaysia
, independent federation (2005 est. pop. 23,953,000), 128,430 sq mi (332,633 sq km), Southeast Asia. The official capital and by far the largest city is Kuala Lumpur; Putrajaya is the adminstrative capital.
..... Click the link for more information.
 in 1963 was resented by Indonesians. Indonesian guerrilla raids against both areas, begun in 1964, continued sporadically until Aug., 1966. The sultanate of Brunei became fully independent in 1984. The resettlement of non-Dyak Indonesians in Kalimantan has led to recurrent violence against the settlers by Dyaks.

Borneo

an island in the W Pacific, between the Sulu and Java Seas, part of the Malay Archipelago: divided into Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah, and the sultanate of Brunei; mountainous and densely forested. Area: about 750 000 sq. km (290 000 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
Both traveled to a variety of intriguing locales, including Beirut, Kabul and Thailand, and they eventually ended up in tropical Borneo, the world's third largest island.
Erik Meijaard, a conservationist involved in the study, said current estimates of the orangutan population on Borneo range from 75,000 to 100,000.
Fifty years ago the interior of Borneo was a pristine, virgin rainforest inhabited by un-contacted indigenous tribes and naive, virtually tame, wildlife.
1, 1881, the British Crown awarded Dent a provisional charter to form the British North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd.
The 25-year-old Tasmanian was airlifted out of a deep ravine known as the 'Hidden Valley' on Tuesday following a search by 60 Malaysian fire and rescue personnel in Mulu National Park, Sarawak, on the northern part of Borneo island.
The 36-year-old contacted Everton in the Community to ask for support and they obliged by sending over kids' football kits, training wear and football equipment for Martin to spread across charitable programmes in Borneo.
Experience Travel Group's new Borneo holidays are truly bespoke, covering all bases from in-depth adventures around the whole island to highlights tours that combine astounding wildlife with exotic beaches and cultural hotspots.
According to KKB, the contract is to develop and upgrade the portions between Sungai Arip Bridge to Bintulu Airport under the proposed Pan Borneo Highway project.
To address the lack of linguistic material available for the vast majority of speech varieties native to northern Borneo, Lobel presents 500 lexical items and 94 closed-set "functors" from each of 46 speech varieties representative of the linguistic variation in the northernmost part of Borneo.
The very tiny ones you wouldn't see even if you put your nose on the ground," says Menno Schilthuizen, who described the Borneo miniature with colleagues.
The Thirteenth Biennial International Conference of the Borneo Research Council was held on the Universitas Mulawarman campus, Samarinda, and took place in conjunction with the Festival Tari Borneo (Borneo Student Traditional Dance Festival) and the 54th anniversary of Mulawarman University.
Team Borneo hopes to help reverse this shocking prediction, but also understands it will take a lot more global support.