Bornu


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Bornu

(bôr`no͞o), former Muslim state, mostly in NE Nigeria, extending S and W of Lake Chad. It began its existence as a separate state in the late 14th cent. From the 14th to the 18th cent. Bornu exported slaves, eunuchs, fabrics dyed with saffron, and other goods to N Africa. Bornu reached its peak under the mai (ruler) Idris Alawma (ruled 1570–1610), when it was the leading state in the central Sudan region. Bornu declined from the 17th cent. In the early 19th cent. it was severely threatened by the FulaniFulani
, people of W Africa, numbering approximately 14 million. They are of mixed sub-Saharan African and Berber origin. First recorded as living in the Senegambia region, they are now scattered throughout the area of the Sudan from Senegal to Cameroon.
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 but maintained its independence when Muhammad al-Kanemi (ruled 1814–35), who established a new dynasty, revived the state. However, Bornu began to decline again after c.1850 because of weak rulers, and was conquered (1893–96) by the forces of Rabih al-Zubayr, a Sudanese slave trader. In 1898, Bornu was divided among Great Britain, France, and Germany. In 1922 the German portion became part of the British Cameroons mandate of the League of Nations.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Bornu

 

a natural region whose major part is located in the North-Eastern State, in northern Nigeria. Its surface is made up of aggradation plains that range in elevation from 280 m in the east (on the shores of Lake Chad) to 500 m in the south and are composed of ancient sand and clay lacustrine deposits. In the south and southeast there are island-like hills and ridges composed of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The climate is subequatorial and hot, with summer rains (precipitation is about 500 mm annually). In the rainy periods water floods the plains extensively and stagnates in the clay sinkholes. The vegetation is mainly grassy savanna with solitary trees. The major occupations of the inhabitants are nomadic and seminomadic livestock raising and the cultivation of millet, sorghum, beans, and rice.

L. A. MIKHAILOVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
This same snail like handling or politicization of Fulani herdsmen is what gave their prior satanic predecessor, Boko Haram the dreadful opportunity of transforming Bornu from 'home of peace' to 'center of war' is a methodology that needs to be avoided.
This is also the official position of the Northern Governors Forum (NGF) whose chairman, Governor Kashim Shettima of Bornu state said in January 2017 that herdsmen are from Senegal and Mali (Vanguard, 26/01/17).
It appears that in the early years of the introduction of Islam in Bornu Empire, only a few native Africans embraced it until the first Muslim mai (King) Hummay (Hume) founded the Sefuwa Dynasty of the Kanem-Bornu Empire in 1068 which incorporated today's Chad, Niger, north-eastern part of Nigeria and later encroached parts of Cameroon.
During the period under review (2006-2008), a total of eighteen (18) states (Adamawa, Bauchi, Bornu, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Sokoto, Plateau, Nasarawa, Kwara, Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Rivers, Edo, Anambra, and Enugu) and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, had confirmed HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in commercial layer, pullet, cockerel, and broiler (Table 1).
The 22.9% was, however, higher than the 15.2% in rural Ga District in Ghana, 20.2% in rural population in Rivers State Nigeria, 20.3% in rural West Africa, 17.3% in rural India, and 15.4% in rural communities in Maiduguri, Bornu State, North East Nigeria [9, 16, 30, 31, 33].
These demands included: (1) payment of US$6 billion for accumulated rents and royalties for oil exploration since 1958; (2) payment of US$4 billion for damages and compensation for environmental pollution; (3) immediate cessation of environmental degradation, especially gas flaring in Yorla, Korokoro, and Bornu; (4) immediate covering of all exposed high-pressure oil pipelines; and (5) initiation of negotiation with the Ogoni people.
Boko Haram (the phrase means "Western education is sinful") began as a loony but not very dangerous group in the northern state of Bornu who rejected everything that they perceived as "Western" science.
The Bornu Basin which represents the Chad Basin in Nigeria is one-tenth of the total areal of the Chad Basin that extends to the Republic of Niger, Chad and Cameroun.
Sample frame Ecological States in each ecological Selected Capitals of zones zone states selected states Dry savannah Bornu, Kebbi, Jigawa, Kebbi Birni-Kebbi Kano, Zamfara, Gombe, Bauchi Bauchi Yobe, Katsina, Bauchi Savannah Kaduna, Plateau, Adamawa, Niger Minna Kwara, Adamawa Yola Guinea savannah Niger, Kogi, Benue, Kogi Benue Lokoja Makurdi Mixed forest/ Nassarawa Anambra, Kogi, Taraba Jalingo savannah Taraba, Enugu Anambra Awka Dry rainforest Oyo, Edo, Osun, Ekiti, Oyo Osun Ibadan Ebonyi, Ogun Ondo Oshogbo Akure Ondo, Akwa-Ibom, Imo, Humid Abia, Cross-River, Delta, Akwa Ibom Uyo rainforest Lagos, Rivers, Bayelsa Table 2.
About the year 1396, Uthman Biri Ibn Idris, King of Bornu the Bornu Empire (1396-1893) was a medieval African state of Nigeria from 1396 to 1893.
He was an ex-slave, the grandson of an African prince from Bornu, in what we would now call north-eastern Nigeria.