Bornu


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Bornu

(bôr`no͞o), former Muslim state, mostly in NE Nigeria, extending S and W of Lake Chad. It began its existence as a separate state in the late 14th cent. From the 14th to the 18th cent. Bornu exported slaves, eunuchs, fabrics dyed with saffron, and other goods to N Africa. Bornu reached its peak under the mai (ruler) Idris Alawma (ruled 1570–1610), when it was the leading state in the central Sudan region. Bornu declined from the 17th cent. In the early 19th cent. it was severely threatened by the FulaniFulani
, people of W Africa, numbering approximately 14 million. They are of mixed sub-Saharan African and Berber origin. First recorded as living in the Senegambia region, they are now scattered throughout the area of the Sudan from Senegal to Cameroon.
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 but maintained its independence when Muhammad al-Kanemi (ruled 1814–35), who established a new dynasty, revived the state. However, Bornu began to decline again after c.1850 because of weak rulers, and was conquered (1893–96) by the forces of Rabih al-Zubayr, a Sudanese slave trader. In 1898, Bornu was divided among Great Britain, France, and Germany. In 1922 the German portion became part of the British Cameroons mandate of the League of Nations.

Bornu

 

a natural region whose major part is located in the North-Eastern State, in northern Nigeria. Its surface is made up of aggradation plains that range in elevation from 280 m in the east (on the shores of Lake Chad) to 500 m in the south and are composed of ancient sand and clay lacustrine deposits. In the south and southeast there are island-like hills and ridges composed of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The climate is subequatorial and hot, with summer rains (precipitation is about 500 mm annually). In the rainy periods water floods the plains extensively and stagnates in the clay sinkholes. The vegetation is mainly grassy savanna with solitary trees. The major occupations of the inhabitants are nomadic and seminomadic livestock raising and the cultivation of millet, sorghum, beans, and rice.

L. A. MIKHAILOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
It appears that in the early years of the introduction of Islam in Bornu Empire, only a few native Africans embraced it until the first Muslim mai (King) Hummay (Hume) founded the Sefuwa Dynasty of the Kanem-Bornu Empire in 1068 which incorporated today's Chad, Niger, north-eastern part of Nigeria and later encroached parts of Cameroon.
Bornu is a very poor state, however, and his preaching gave him enough of a following among the poor and ignorant to make him a political threat to the established order.
The Bornu Basin which represents the Chad Basin in Nigeria is one-tenth of the total areal of the Chad Basin that extends to the Republic of Niger, Chad and Cameroun.
Sample frame Ecological States in each ecological Selected Capitals of zones zone states selected states Dry savannah Bornu, Kebbi, Jigawa, Kebbi Birni-Kebbi Kano, Zamfara, Gombe, Bauchi Bauchi Yobe, Katsina, Bauchi Savannah Kaduna, Plateau, Adamawa, Niger Minna Kwara, Adamawa Yola Guinea savannah Niger, Kogi, Benue, Kogi Benue Lokoja Makurdi Mixed forest/ Nassarawa Anambra, Kogi, Taraba Jalingo savannah Taraba, Enugu Anambra Awka Dry rainforest Oyo, Edo, Osun, Ekiti, Oyo Osun Ibadan Ebonyi, Ogun Ondo Oshogbo Akure Ondo, Akwa-Ibom, Imo, Humid Abia, Cross-River, Delta, Akwa Ibom Uyo rainforest Lagos, Rivers, Bayelsa Table 2.
33) Esse ultimo, de idade bastante avancada, era um africano chamado Adriao Bornu, preto, casado e declarado como "sem profissao".
About the year 1396, Uthman Biri Ibn Idris, King of Bornu the Bornu Empire (1396-1893) was a medieval African state of Nigeria from 1396 to 1893.
He was an ex-slave, the grandson of an African prince from Bornu, in what we would now call north-eastern Nigeria.
In the nineteenth century, many European expeditions aimed at discovering Bornu for three main reasons.
in this matter of the extent and quality of their initiative they were a sorry contrast to a Benin or Bornu or Songhay or Mall or Mwanamutapa or Ethiopia or Ghana which had each come into being for internal African reasons, not because they were conjured up to serve a Europe that was battering down Africa's doors, demanding slaves.
Savannah nomads: A study of the Wodaabe pastoral Fulani of western Bornu province, northern region Nigeria.
According to Peters (1978) and Okosun (1995), five stratigraphic units Bima Sandstone, Gongila Formation, Fika Shale, Kerrikerri and Chad Formations were recognized in Bornu basin (Fig.
The teenagers and young adults from Atacama, Bante, Bornu, and Dahomey could have become Americans after spending four times longer in Alabama than in their homelands," Diouf argues, "but they made a point not to do so.