Borrelia


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Borrelia

A genus of spirochetes that have a unique genome composed of a linear chromosome and numerous linear and circular plasmids. Borreliae are motile, helical organisms with 4–30 uneven, irregular coils, and are 5–25 micrometers long and 0.2–0.5 μm wide. All borreliae are arthropod-borne. Of the 24 recognized species, 21 cause relapsing fever and similar diseases in human and rodent hosts; two are responsible for infections in ruminants and horses; and the remaining one, for borreliosis in birds. See Bacteria

The borreliae of human relapsing fevers are transmitted by the body louse or by a large variety of soft-shelled ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. The species B. burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease and related disorders, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Borrelia anserina, which causes spirochetosis in chickens and other birds, is propagated by ticks of the genus Argas. Various species of ixodid ticks are responsible for transmitting B. theileri among cattle, horses, and sheep. Borrelia coriaceae, isolated from O. coriaceus, is the putative cause of epizootic bovine abortion in the western United States.

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of spirochetes has shown that the outer surface of the microorganisms contains numerous variable lipoproteins of which at least two are abundant. The antigenic variability is well known for the relapsing fever borreliae. A switch in the major outer-surface proteins leads to recurrent spirochetemias. Tetracyclines, penicillins, and doxycycline are the most effective antibiotics for treatment of spirochetes. Two vaccines consisting of recombinant B. burgdorferi have been evaluated in subjects of risk for Lyme disease. Both proved safe and effective in the prevention of this disease. See Antibiotic, Medical bacteriology

Borrelia

[bə′rel·ē·ə]
(microbiology)
A genus of bacteria in the family Spirochaetaceae; helical cells with uneven coils and parallel fibrils coiled around the cell body for locomotion; many species cause relapsing fever in humans.
References in periodicals archive ?
Melia, "Bullying Borrelia: when the culture of science is under attack," Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, vol.
The Borrelia MLST scheme is available through the MLST network (http://www.mlst.net/).
It has demonstrated strong activity against Borrelia (19) there is strong evidence that Allium has the function of antimycobactrial agents together with their cytotoxic, immunomodulatory, and hepatoprotective activities.
In cases in which Borrelia burgdorferi infection is documented, a course of antibiotics should also be prescribed (10).
The direct isolation is difficult and Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies are usually investigated in serum for diagnosis.
We extracted DNA from all samples (i.e., whole blood, ear punch biopsies, and ticks) using DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kits (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA, USA) and assayed for the presence of Borrelia using quantitative PCR (qPCR) (9), which is able to detect as few as 10 spirochetes.
"This means there is a second line of defense for Borrelia just like for our body's immune system.
La deteccion de Borrelia en perros podria ser un criterio importante para la evaluacion del riesgo de la EL en humanos, ya que el perro puede emplearse como indicador epidemiologico para la identificacion de nuevos focos de esta enfermedad (Bhide, Travnicek, Curlik, & Stefancikova, 2004; Little, Heise, Blagburn, Callister, & MeadLyme, 2010).
burgdorferi, and, for TBRF Borrelia, only two serological tests, an IFA test for B.
Borreliosis are a group of globally distributed infectious diseases caused by spirochete bacteria of the genus Borrelia that are transmitted by ticks and lice acting as vectors.
To investigate the reliability of the new test, Dr Audun Aase, from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, and his colleagues collected blood samples both from people who had been suffering from Lyme disease-like symptoms for several years and previously tested positive for Borrelia and/or Babesia by the LM-method (21 people), and healthy controls with no known history of tick bites (41 people).