Bose, Subhas Chandra

Bose, Subhas Chandra

Bose, Subhas Chandra (sho͝obhäshˈ chŭnˈdrə bōs), 1897–1945?, Indian nationalist also known as Netaji. He began his political career in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and soon became the leader of the left wing of the Indian National Congress. He was president of the party in 1938–39 but was forced to resign after a dispute with Mohandas Gandhi; he advocated militancy to achieve independence for India and believed in dictatorship to unify the country. Jailed by the British for his Axis sympathies in World War II, he escaped (1941) and fled to Germany. In 1943 he headed in Singapore a Japanese-sponsored “provisional government of India” and organized an “Indian national army.” Although sympathetic to totalitarianism, his collaboration was principally directed toward freeing India from British rule and the establishment of an independent regime. He was said to have died in an airplane crash in Taiwan, but in 2005 the Taiwanese government said that an investigation showed that no crash had occurred.


See his collected writings and letters, ed. by J. S. Bright (2d ed. 1947); biography by S. Bose (2011); L. Gordon, Brothers against the Raj (1990).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Bose, Subhas Chandra


Born Jan. 23, 1897, in Cuttack, Orissa; died Aug. 18, 1945, in Taiwan. Figure of the Indian national liberation movement.

In 1924–25, Bose was a member of the Swarajist Party. In 1928, together with J. Nehru, he was the leader of the “left” in the Indian National Congress. In 1939 he founded the petit bourgeois party of the Forward bloc. Believing that any opponent of England was an ally in the Indian national struggle, Bose sought aid in Germany and Japan. In 1941 he fled to Germany, and in 1942 in Japanese-occupied Burma he became the leader of the so-called Free India government; from Indian prisoners of war he created the Indian National Army, which fought against England on the side of Japan. Bose perished in an airplane crash.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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